Bolshevik Consolidation of Power

Amandeep Uppal
Mind Map by Amandeep Uppal, updated more than 1 year ago
Amandeep Uppal
Created by Amandeep Uppal over 4 years ago
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AS level History (Russia in Revolution) Mind Map on Bolshevik Consolidation of Power, created by Amandeep Uppal on 01/09/2017.

Resource summary

Bolshevik Consolidation of Power
  1. New Economic Policy
    1. 1921: Lenin & the Bolsheviks were on the edge of disaster- with the civil war over, workers and peasants expected to see an improvement in their standard of living & an end to wartime policies
      1. However, by the spring of 1921, economic conditions had deteriorated & there was open revolt against the Bolshevik government
        1. Lenin was forced into making economic concessions in his NEP to ensure the survival of the regime. The economy recovered & the Bolsheviks were reprieved.
          1. The NEP was accompanied by political repression & a strengthening of the centralised 1-party state.
      2. Key features of the NEP
        1. Grain requisitioning abolished
          1. Peasants had to give a fixed proportion of their grain to the state, but the amount that they had to hand over was much less than the amounts taken by requisitioning. They could sell any surpluses on the open market.
          2. Small businesses reopened
            1. Small-scale businesses under private ownership= allowed to reopen & make a profit
              1. Included businesses like small workshops & factories that made products such as shoes, nails & clothes.
                1. Lenin realised that peasants wouldn't sell their produce unless their were goods that they wanted on sale.
              2. Ban on private trade removed
                1. Meant that food & goods could flow more easily between the countryside & the towns.
                  1. Privately owned shops were reopened
                    1. Rationing was abolished & people had to buy food & goods from their own income
                    2. State control of heavy industry
                      1. The state kept control of large-scale heavy industries like coal, steel & oil
                        1. The state also retained control of transport & the banking system
                          1. Industry was organised into trusts that they had to buy materials & pay their workers from their own budgets. If they failed to manage their budgets efficiently, they couldn't expect the state to bail them out
                          2. ROTCOM ( Requisitioning stopped, Ownership of small businesses allowed, Trade ban lifted, COMmanding heights of industry with state
                        2. Immediate Consolidation 1918
                          1. Establishing One-Party Control
                            1. The Second All- Russian Congrees of 25th October 1917
                              1. Trotsky was able to manipulate a walk out of all the non-Bolshevik parties
                                1. (Mensheviks and Social Dermocrats who felt that the Bolshevik takeover was illegal)
                                  1. left the Bolsheviks in a clear majority
                                    1. allowed Trotsky to claim the Bolsheviks= taking power in the name of the Soviets & honouring the pledge of "all power to the Soviets"
                                2. Sovnarkom
                                  1. The Council of the People's Commissar's
                                    1. =the main instrument of government
                                      1. dominated by the Bolsheviks
                                        1. the Bolsheviks passed decrees and other measures through Sovnarkom to establish control & order whilst the remainder of Russia=gradually brought under Bolshevik control
                                          1. Land Decree
                                            1. gave peasants the right to take over land and estates of the elites
                                              1. land= no longer bought or rented- it belonged to the entire people
                                              2. Workers' Control Decree
                                                1. worker pressure for reform led to factory committees controlling production, labour and finance
                                                2. Rights of the People of Russia Decree
                                                  1. self-determination for national minorities within Russia
                                                  2. Nationalisation of banks
                                                    1. Opposition press banned
                                                      1. Arrest of key political opponents
                                                        1. Politburo 1919
                                                          1. group of about 7 top communists
                                                            1. rapidly took precedence over the Sovnarkom
                                                      2. Constituent Assembly
                                                        1. calls for democratically elected govt. in Russia
                                                          1. problem because Lenin & the Bolsheviks as they had no desire to share power with others.
                                                            1. had to hold elections otherwise they'd be accused of being autocratic & dictorial
                                                          2. November 1918
                                                            1. elections for the Constituent Assembly held
                                                              1. Lenin= concerned by the results of the election
                                                                1. determined that the Bolsheviks should rule alone
                                                                  1. aware that other parties may not be willing to work with them
                                                                    1. Mensheviks, S.Rs & other socialists didn't want the Bolsheviks to rule on their own, preferred more power to the Soviets in democratically elected & open bodies
                                                                      1. As the Sovnarkom passed decrees throughout the remainder of 1917, it became clear that they were bypassing the Soviet.
                                                                        1. The Constituent Assembly therefore showed it be a serious threat as it represented theresults of free electionns & therefore the views of the people
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