Tsarist Russia 1861 - 1917

ChristianLowe
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

History Mind Map on Tsarist Russia 1861 - 1917, created by ChristianLowe on 05/06/2013.

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ChristianLowe
Created by ChristianLowe over 6 years ago
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Tsarist Russia 1861 - 1917
1 Alexander II 1855-1881
1.1 Emancipation of the Serfs 1861 sets serfs free from their legal bind with the land
1.1.1 Many Serfs actually worse off - forced to pay redemption payments that plunged them into poverty
1.1.2 Largely seen as result of defeat in Crimean War in 1850s
1.2 Known as the 'Great Reformer'
1.3 Backwards economy lagging far behind the rest of Europe
1.4 Assassinated by 'The People's Will' in bomb attack in 1881
2 Alexander III 1881-1894
2.1 Highly repressive and conservative
2.1.1 Policy of Russification enforces Russian culture and language over the Empires different ethnicities
2.1.2 Press control and government supervision over universities
2.1.3 Government arrest and execute student Alexander Ulyanov in 1887 - elder brother of Lenin
2.2 Appoints Konstantin Pobedonostsev as chief minister
2.2.1 Issues Manifesto in 1881 - claims that all power in Russia lies with the Tsar
3 Economic development under Nicholas II
3.1 Sergei Witte
3.1.1 Becomes Minister of Finance in 1891
3.1.2 Extensive restructuring of Russian economy with emphasis of industrial materials
3.1.2.1 Coal production increases from 5.9 million tons in 1890, to 16 million in 1900
3.1.2.2 Oil production increases from 3.9 million tons in 1890, to 10.2 million in 1900
3.1.2.3 GDP rises 96% between 1898 and 1913
3.1.3 Huge extension of Russian railway network
3.1.3.1 Trans-Siberian Railway
3.1.4 Put the Rouble on the Gold Standard to encourage investment
3.1.5 Secures millions of dollars worth of European loans
3.2 Peter Stolypin
3.2.1 Agrarian reform seeks to replace strip farming with more western methods
3.2.2 Abolished redemption payments for peasants and granted them the ability to leave their 'commune' on their own will
3.2.2.1 By 1915 50% of peasants owned their own land, up from 20% in 1905
3.3 Population growth in towns and cities led to cramp, poor conditions - breeding ground for social unrest
4 The 1905 Revolution
4.1 Causes
4.1.1 Russian defeat in 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War was national humiliation
4.1.2 Heavy political oppression
4.1.3 High levels of taxation and bad harvests, plus squalid urban conditions
4.2 Events
4.2.1 'Bloody Sunday' - Father Gapon leads a peaceful march to the Winter Palace to present petition against poor conditions
4.2.1.1 Soldiers open fire and up to 200 protestors killed
4.2.1.1.1 Disorder spreads with strikes occurring in all major cities with attacks on public buildings
4.2.1.1.1.1 Potemkin Mutiny - crew of battleship Potemkin mutiny against Captain
4.2.2 Establishment of St. Petersburg 'Soviet' (workers committee) in October to organise protest
4.3 Aftermath
4.3.1 Tsar issued the October Manifesto
4.3.1.1 Allowed the creation of a 'Duma' - a form of parliament with law making powers
4.3.1.1.1 Tsar ruled that peasants no longer had to pay mortgage payments - appeasement
4.4 Only a minor role played by Lenin and revolutionaries - more sporadic than controlled
5 The First World War
5.1 Repercussions
5.1.1 Rasputin becomes advisor and doctor to Tsarevich
5.1.1.1 Holds significant power over the Tsarina and royal court - Tsarina becomes increasingly unpopular
5.1.2 Huge economic toil on the country - inflation increases 200% and huge loss of life and food production
5.1.2.1 Political - Tsar refuses to listen to the Duma and brands them traitors. Government becomes even less popular
5.1.2.1.1 Discontent, economic turmoil, humiliation and political unrest lead to the events of the February Revolution in 1917 - Tsarist Russia is coming to an end.
5.2 Military Performance
5.2.1 The War begins well for Russia - advances made in eastern Austria and Germany
5.2.1.1 Advance halted at Battle of Tannenburg 1914 - only 10,000 troops escape the battle
5.2.1.1.1 After loss of Poland, Nicholas takes over as Commander in Chief in September 1915
5.2.1.1.1.1 Poor commander - Brusilov Offensive 1916 ultimately fails and leads to huge casualties and mass retreat
5.3 Initial patriotism and rallying behind the Tsar
6 Political Parties under Nicholas II
6.1 The Socialist Revolutionaries
6.1.1 Led by Victor Chernov
6.1.2 Followed the ideas of 'Russian Populism' - Russia's future lies with the peasants in independent democratic communes
6.1.2.1 Terrorist wing responsible for murder of Plehve, Minister of the Interior in 1904
6.1.3 Disorganised and fractured between Left and Right
6.2 The Social Democrats
6.2.1 Followed the ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels - The Communist Manifesto
6.2.1.1 At Second Party Congress 1903, Lenin forces split between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
6.2.1.1.1 Bolsheviks
6.2.1.1.1.1 Party membership exclusive to dedicated revolutionaries
6.2.1.1.1.1.1 Democratic Centralism - power was in obedience
6.2.1.1.2 Mensheviks
6.2.1.1.2.1 Membership open to all and alliance with other parties
6.3 Populist movement is the forerunner of the political parties formed in early 1900s
6.4 The Liberals
6.4.1 Kadets - businessman and professionals wanting constitutional monarchy
7 Repression under Peter Stolypin
7.1 Minister of the Interior 1906-1911
7.1.1 Extensive use of field court martials to combat revolutionary aftermath - 1100 executions between 1906-1907
7.1.1.1 The noose became known as 'Stolypin's Necktie'
7.1.1.2 Forces closure of thousands of anti-government newspapers and convicted 16,500 people of polictical crimes between 1908-1909 alone
7.1.2 The Dumas 1906-1914
7.1.2.1 Duma - the Russian parliament permitted in the October Manifesto
7.1.2.1.1 1st Duma - Huge demand for reform, yet closed by Tsar after 72 days with minimal reform passed
7.1.2.1.1.1 2nd Duma - Stolypin passes land reform, yet closed after 3 months due to unwelcome criticism of military
7.1.2.1.1.1.1 3rd and 4th Dumas - Election to 3rd Duma restricted to wealthy to ensure government support. Reforms still passed however, such as a commitment to provide universal primary education

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