elisabeth.malt97
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE pe Mind Map on diet, created by elisabeth.malt97 on 04/09/2014.

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elisabeth.malt97
Created by elisabeth.malt97 over 5 years ago
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diet
1 maintaining a balanced diet
1.1 nutritional needs
1.1.1 carbohydrates
1.1.1.1 separated in simple or complex carbs
1.1.1.2 simple carbs or sugars include glucose and sugar
1.1.1.3 complex carbs or starches include pasta rice and bread
1.1.1.4 one of the main sources of energy
1.1.2 fats
1.1.2.1 3 types and are commonly found in cheese, cream, meat, cooking oils, margarine and butter
1.1.2.2 major source of energy for the body
1.1.3 proteins
1.1.3.1 commonly known as the building blocks as they're very important in the growth of new tissue
1.1.3.2 2 main sources are animal products and plant foods such as beans lentils nuts and seeds
1.1.4 vitamins
1.1.4.1 essential to enable you to maintain good health
1.1.4.2 vitamins are only required in small quantities
1.1.4.3 usually contained in a normal diet
1.1.5 minerals
1.1.5.1 only required in small amounts
1.1.5.2 mainly found in veg and meat
1.1.6 water/fluids
1.1.6.1 absolutely essential because failure to replace lost water can result in dehydration
1.1.6.2 more problems can be caused by lack of water than lack of food
1.1.7 fibre
1.1.7.1 important as an aid for the digestive system
1.1.7.2 contained in cereals wholegrain bread and oats
1.2 dietary considerations
1.2.1 no single food group is able to provide all the nutrients the body needs so it is important to eat a variety of foods
1.2.2 5 main foods groups
1.2.2.1 bread rice potatoes pasta and other starchy foods
1.2.2.2 fruit and vegetables
1.2.2.3 milk and dairy food
1.2.2.4 meat fish eggs beans and other non dairy sources of protein
1.2.2.5 food and drinks high in fat and/ or sugar
1.2.3 proportions for this are shown in the food wheel
1.2.4 should try to choose different foods form the first four groups every day
1.2.5 failing to maintain this val;acne could result in the following dietary imbalance or deficiencies
1.2.5.1 malnutrition: this is physical weakness resulting from insufficient food or an unbalanced diet
1.2.5.2 obesity: this is a condition of being extremely fat or overweight, which frequently results in health problems
1.2.5.3 anorexia: this is an eating disorder primarily occurring in girls and women, related to a fear of gaining weight, self starvation and distorted body image
2 specific diets
2.1 a starting point for any diet must primarily be that it is balanced
2.2 however there may be particular occasions when a diet may need to be adjusted or even adapted for particular performers and particular activities
2.3 levels of participation
2.3.1 eating food is necessary to provide the body with energy
2.3.2 eating the right foods will ensure that you have enough energy and that you are able to maintain the correct body weight for you particular needs
2.3.3 energy is need by the body even when it is at rest
2.3.3.1 when you become more active your metabolic rate is affected and you will need to balance the requirements your body has taken in with the amounts that are being used up
2.3.3.1.1 METABOLIC RATE: the minimum rate of energy required to keep all of the life processes of the body maintained when it is at rest
2.3.4 the number of calories needs to balance because if you have a higher intake than output you will tend to put on weight and if you are very active you will need to make sure that you are providing your body adequately
2.3.4.1 CALORIE: a unit that measures heat or eery production in the body
2.3.5 when to eat is also a factor you need to consider carefully
2.3.5.1 before activity: do not eat too close to performing, try to wait about 2 hours after eating
2.3.5.2 during activity: generally you shouldn't eat during activity but sometimes light and in small quantities e.g. banana would be fine
2.3.5.3 after activity: you should try to leave the same 2 hour gap as you did before the activity
2.3.6 liquids may need to be taken before during and after the activity to avoid dehydration but don't take too much liquid immediately after finishing as this can result in discomfort
2.4 carbohydrate loading
2.4.1 this is a particular dietary plan that endurance athletes mainly marathon runes use involving eating plenty of starch rich foods such as pasta in the week before an important competition or event
2.4.2 the starch increase the amount of glycogen in the muscles which can help to delay tiredness and can improve performance in the end stages of a competition as its a slow release form of energy