Reforms/Acts/Pacts

jenny_allen
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

India Mind Map on Reforms/Acts/Pacts, created by jenny_allen on 05/07/2013.

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jenny_allen
Created by jenny_allen over 6 years ago
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Reforms/Acts/Pacts
1 MORLEY-MINTO REFORMS/INDIAN COUNCILS ACT 1909
1.1 WHAT
1.1.1 Changes made to central, provincial and executive councils.
1.1.1.1 60 Indian representatives elected to serve on Viceroy's Executive Council.
1.1.1.1.1 27 of these from territorial constituencies/special interest groups.
1.1.1.2 Provincial councils enlarged to create non-official majorities.
1.1.1.3 Separate electorates provided for Muslims and Hindus - allowed minority Muslims to have voice in councils.
1.1.2 Indians involved in policy making
1.2 CONSEQUENCES
1.2.1 Extremists were isolated - saw reforms as 'window dressing'.
1.2.2 British administrators disappointed as changed diluted their power.
1.2.3 ICS believed they represented everyone - their influence was removed
1.2.4 Congress regretted that the reforms balanced minority interests
1.3 WHY
1.3.1 More concessions needed to be made to the Indian people - became clear that politically active Indians could potentially sway the masses.
2 HOME RULE LEAGUES 1916
2.1 WHY
2.1.1 Wanted Home Rule for India.
2.2 WHO
2.2.1 TILAK
2.2.1.1 Popular - 32,000 supporters
2.2.2 ANNIE BESANT
2.2.2.1 Less popular but more widespread
2.2.3 Groups ended up joining.
2.3 CONSEQUENCES
2.3.1 British government have Home Rule campaigners arrested.
3 MONTAGU DECLARATION 1917
3.1 Appeared to promise eventual self-government.
3.2 MONTAGU-CHELMSFORD REFORMS/GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1919
3.2.1 WHAT
3.2.1.1 Changes to councils and electorates
3.2.1.1.1 Elected members in majority councils
3.2.1.1.2 Imperial Executive Council increased to 6 members (3 Indians)
3.2.1.2 Self government in the future
3.2.1.3 Division of government responsibility
3.2.1.3.1 Dyarchy
3.2.1.3.2 PROVINCIAL COUNCILS responsible for..
3.2.1.3.2.1 Collecting tax
3.2.1.3.2.2 Irrigation works
3.2.1.3.3 CENTRAL GOVERNMENT responsible for..
3.2.1.3.3.1 Income
3.2.1.3.3.2 Custom duties
3.2.1.3.3.3 Foreign affairs
3.2.1.3.3.4 Defence
3.2.1.3.3.5 Postal communications & railways
3.2.2 CONSEQUENCES
3.2.2.1 Act was quite complex so many were confused by it
3.2.2.2 Encouraged nationalists to demand more
4 LUCKNOW PACT 1916
4.1 Hindu's and Muslims agree to work together towards self-government.
4.1.1 Set out precise details of future electorates once India became self-governed.
5 DOMINION DECLARATION 1929
5.1 WHY
5.1.1 Result of the Simon Commission & Nehru Report
5.2 WHAT
5.2.1 New Labour Gov. stated that British control would remain over executive/military matters but ALL provincial admin would be entirely Indian.
5.3 CONSEQUENCES
5.3.1 British concerned as declaration went against Simon Commission
6 GANDHI-IRWIN PACT
6.1 WHAT
6.1.1 GANDHI'S concessions
6.1.1.1 End civil disobedience
6.1.1.2 Congress to participate in Round Table conferences.
6.1.2 IRWIN'S concessions
6.1.2.1 Political prisoners released.
6.1.2.2 Remove bans from organisations, cancel fines, lift restrictions etc.
6.1.2.3 Peaceful picketing permitted.
6.1.2.4 Government promise all future political changes to benefit India.
6.2 CONSEQUENCES
6.2.1 British angry - Irwin conceding to a 'trouble maker'.
6.2.2 Churchill resigns and starts Indian Defence League - campaigned for Indian to always remain as a subordinate member of the British Empire.
6.2.3 Congress annoyed that civil disobedience had to stop - seemed to be working.
7 GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1937
7.1 WHAT
7.1.1 Eventual federation at a national level. Provincial autonomy with special responsibilities.
7.1.1.1 ABOLISHED DYARCHY
7.1.1.2 Electorate expanded to 35 million
7.1.1.3 Emergency powers available for Central Gov. to use in times of emergency.
7.1.1.4 Full provincial governments created.
7.2 CONSEQUENCES
7.2.1 Congress split between opposing Act out of principle or taking whatever gains they can get.
8 LAHORE RESOLUTION 1940
8.1 WHAT
8.1.1 Set out by Jinnah to establish the Muslim position.
8.1.1.1 Very unclear - could be interpreted as first call for Pakistan.
8.2 CONSEQUENCES
8.2.1 Divided Hindus and Muslims further - Congress argued they were standing for Indians whereas Muslim League were just preserving Muslim interests.
9 SIMLA CONFERENCE 1946
9.1 WHAT
9.1.1 Held as a result of the Cabinet Mission
9.1.1.1 British determined to leave India so proposed...
9.1.1.1.1 a) 1 single state
9.1.1.1.2 or b) 2 separate states - Hindustan and Pakistan
9.2 CONSEQUENCES
9.2.1 Failed to reach an agreement - confusion and fear led to CALCUTTA KILLINGS
10 PLAN BALKAN & MENON PLAN 1947
10.1 WHAT
10.1.1 Set out how India was going to be partitioned.
10.1.1.1 Mountbatten showed plan to Nehru who believed it would create a fragmentary division.
10.1.1.2 Plan was amended - some councils given chance to choose which state to be a part of. (British Cabinet approve).
11 INDEPENDENCE ACT 1947
11.1 WHAT
11.1.1 Designed to split India into two states and remove British involvement.
11.1.2 Partition Council was established to divide up ALL assets belonging to the English.
11.1.3 Border decisions made by Sir Cyril Radcliffe
12 INDEPENDENCE DECLARED AUG. 1947
12.1 MIDNIGHT between Aug 14th and15th
12.2 CONSEQUENCES
12.2.1 Included rioting, mass-rape, migration and political problems etc

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