184.108.40.206.1.1 A Germany ruled by workers' councils or soviets.
220.127.116.11.2 What was
18.104.22.168.2.1 He sent in the Freikorps, anti-Communist ex-soldiers and street-fights ensued, ending with both Liebknecht
& Luxemburg being captured and killed. However around 100 civilians and 17 Freikorps soldiers died during
22.214.171.124.3.1 Karl Liebknecht & Rosa Luxemburg
126.96.36.199.4 What did they do?
188.8.131.52.4.1 In January 1919, 50,000 Spartacists rebelled
in Berlin by striking and barricading roads.
184.108.40.206.1.1 A Bavarian
220.127.116.11.2 What did they do?
18.104.22.168.2.1 As early as November 1918, Independent
Socialists had set up a republic in Bavaria.
It was lead by Kurt Eisner, who was Ebert's
ally. However, a right wing student shot
Eisner dead in February 1919. The
Communists seized the opportunity, and the
Soviet Republic of Bavaria came into being.
22.214.171.124.3 What was
126.96.36.199.3.1 The army and the Freikorpswas asked
to deal with the problem. The main city
in Bavaria - Munich - was put under
siege and by April food in the city was
in very short supply. On May 1st, 1919,
soldiers from the army assisted by the
Freikorps took over Munich killing at
least 600 people - including children.
188.8.131.52 Kapp Putsch
184.108.40.206.1 What did
220.127.116.11.1.1 Marched along with 5000
Freikorps into Berlin and
took over the capital.
18.104.22.168.2.1 Dr. Wolfgang Kapp
22.214.171.124.3 What did they want?
126.96.36.199.3.1 A new militaristic
government of an
188.8.131.52.4 What was
184.108.40.206.4.1 At first he fled due to the Army
refusing to fire on them, but he then
appealed for a mass strike which
resulted in, after a few days, Kapp
fleeing due to the capitals complete
halt, with no water or transport.
220.127.116.11 Munich Putsch
18.104.22.168.1 What did they do?
22.214.171.124.1.1 On 8th November
marched to the
centre of Munich
and, in the ensuing
sixteen Nazis and
126.96.36.199.2 What did they want?
188.8.131.52.3.1 Adolf Hitler
184.108.40.206.4 What was Ebert's
220.127.116.11.4.1 Police rounded up the forces
and kill 16 Nazis. Hitler flees
in a car but is sentenced to 5
years in jail, but only serves 9
months in the comfortable
open prison of Landsberg
Castle . Ludendorff faces the
1.1.3 Treaty of Versaille
18.104.22.168 Cost Of The Treaty
22.214.171.124.1 Germany lost: 10% of its land,
all of its overseas colonies,
12.55 of its population, 16% of
its coal and 48% of its iron
industry; in addition the army
was reduced to 100,000, it was
allowed no air force, navy was
reduced, they had to accept the
blame for starting the war and
they had to pay reparations.
126.96.36.199 Effect On German Support
188.8.131.52.1 Many Germans were appalled
by the harsh conditions of the
treaty, and, even though Ebert
had a hard time signing the
treaty, many Germans believed
that the Weimar republic was to
blame for the treaty. Ebert's
opponents claimed that
Germany had not lost the war on
the battlefield but had been
stabbed in the back by weak
1.2 Invasion of the
Ruhr / Hyperinflation
184.108.40.206.1 The Treaty of
Versailles is signed
agrees to pay
£6600 million of
reparations, paid in
yearly £50 million
220.127.116.11 First instalment
is paid to Britain
the money for
was paid, so
his best to
play for time
18.104.22.168.1 The French run out of
patience and French and
Belgian troops march,
legally under the Treaty of
Versailles, into the Ruhr,
and begin to take goods
and materials - as they
too have war debts to the
they go on
22.214.171.124 This passive
the hault in
- which causes
the collapse in
126.96.36.199.1 Because it had no goods to trade, the
Government simply printed money. for the
Government this seemed an attractive solution.
It paid off its debts with worthless marks,
including war loans of over £220 million. The
great industrialists were able to pay off all their
debt as well.
188.8.131.52.1.1 This set of a chain reaction. with so much money in circulation,
prices and wages skyrocketed, but people soon realised that this
money was worthless. Workers needed wheelbarrows to carry
home their wages, which were being paid daily instead of weekly.
And the price of something could change between joining the back
of the queue. One loaf of bread cost 201 billion marks by
November 1923 and billion mark notes were being quickly handed
out. The people worse affected, however were the middle class and
people with savings as they became worthless.
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 It was clear t all, both inside and outside Germany, that
the situation needed urgent action. In August 1923 a new
Government under Gustav Stresemann took over. He
called off the passive resistance in the Ruhr. He called in
all the worthless marks and burned them, replacing them
with a new currency called the Rentenmark. he negotiated
to receive American Loans under the Dawes Plan. he even
renegotiated the reparations payments. The economic
crisis was solved very quickly. some historians suggest
that this is evidence that Germany's problems were not as
bad as Politicians had made out. It was also increasingly
clear that hyperinflation had been a blow to the Weimar
Government as their right-wing opponents now had
another problem to blame them for, and the government
had lost the support of the middle class.
1.4 Government System
1.4.1 Impact of the War on
Germany By 1918
220.127.116.11 Germany was
18.104.22.168.1 The War left 600,000 widows and 2 million children without fathers - by 1925
the state was spending about 1/3 of its budget on war pensions.
22.214.171.124.2 National income was 1/3 of what it had been in 1913.
126.96.36.199.3 Industrial production was 2/3 of what it had been in 1913
188.8.131.52 The war had
deepened divisions in
184.108.40.206.1 There were huge
gaps between the
living standards of
the rich and poor.
220.127.116.11.2 Many German workers
were bitter at the
restriction placed on
their earnings during
the War, while the
factory owners mad
vast fortunes from war.
18.104.22.168.3 During the War women were
called up to work in the
factories. Many saw this as
damaging to the traditional
family values and society as a
22.214.171.124 Germany had a revolution
and became an unstable
126.96.36.199.1 Stresses led to a
revolution in October -
188.8.131.52.2 Many ex-soldiers and civilians despised the
new democratic leaders and came to believe
that the heroic Field Marshall Hindenburg
had been betrayed by weak politicians.
184.108.40.206 Article 48 - this said that, in
an emergency, the president
did not need the agreement
of the Reichstag, but could
220.127.116.11 Stayed out
18.104.22.168 Appointed by
had the most
22.214.171.124 Voted every 4 years through
Proportional Representation -
where if a party got 20% of the
votes it got 20% of the seats.
age of 20
126.96.36.199 Role was
to vote on
2 Consolidation of Power
2.1 Reichstag Fire
2.1.1 On 27th February 1933 The
Reichstag went up in flames and an
enraged Hitler blamed the communists
as the Dutch communist Marianus van
der Lubbe. He then demanded an
emergency decree that was issued by
president Hindenburg on the 28th
suspending all parts of the Constitution
that guarantee freedom of speech,
liberty, the press and assembly. Hitler
used these powers, that stayed in
place for 12 years, to arrest 4000
communists on the 28th; frighten
voters and break up meetings.
2.2 Enabling Act
2.2.1 On March 24th 1933 the Enabling Act was
passed. To pass it needed at 2/3 majority,
whereas they only 288. So Hitler bribed other
parties and made a deal with the Catholic
Centre Party that if they voted for then the
Catholics and their schools would be left
alone. Therefore only the SDP voted against
them, and the final tally was 444 for and 96
against as 26 Social Democrat Deputies went
into hiding. The Act made him a legal Dictator
as he could pass any law with out consulting
Reichstag and Hindenburg could do nothing
as it was passed democratically.
2.3 Night of the
2.3.1 TNOTLK came about because Hitler was forced to choose between the Army and the SA. He
chose the Army because: Röhm was openly gay; Röhm was an internal threat, the SA. had
conflicting views with Hitler, The Army had wider support and the Army was more disciplined.
Therefore to get rid of the S.A on the 29th & 30th June 1934 squads broke into the homes of
Ernst Röhm and other SA leading figures along with 400 communists and people who had no
connection to Röhm - like ex-chancellor Von Schleicher - arrested them for treason. They were
then executed over the whole weekend and Hitler was thanked by President Hindenburg for
having "nipped treason at the bud". The SA was not disbanded but never regained its
importance as many of its members were absorbed by the SS or the now pleased Army.
2.4 Hindenburg Dies
2.4.1 Paul von Hindenburg dies on the 2nd of
August 1934, and Hitler takes over as
Führer - supreme leader of Germany -
making the army swear an oath to him as
leader of Germany. The Army agreed to
stay out of Politics, and in return Adolf
Hitler invested huge sums of money in
rearmament, brought back conscription
and made plans to make Germany a
great military power again.
2.5 March Elections
2.5.1 On March 5th 1933 the Nazis
got their largest ever vote of
288 seats, equal to 44%,
meaning with the support of
smaller nationalist parties
they had a majority.
2.6 Removal Of Civil Rights
2.6.1 On 31st March Every provincial
parliament is shut down. They are
reorganised to have the same
constitution as the Reichstag – the
Nazis are therefore in control. Then
on 7th April - Managers appointed for
each province - they are all members
of the Nazi party. They are given the
right to appoint and dismiss officers.
2.7 Hitler as Chancellor
2.7.1 On 30th January Hindenburg appoints
Hitler as Chancellor but: only three out
of 10 ministers were members of the
Nazi party the Nazis had less than half
the seats in the Reichstag Hindenburg
could dismiss Hitler at any time.