Capacity STM, LTM

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Psychology (Memory) Mind Map on Capacity STM, LTM, created by samantha_x on 04/21/2014.

Resource summary

Capacity STM, LTM
1 capacity refers to how much can be held in a particular place
2 Capacity of STM
2.1 digit span technique - Jacobs 1887
2.1.1 used the technitque to assess capacity of STM - found that ave span for digits = 9.3 items and 7.3 for letters - suggests this is because there's only 9 letters and 26 letters
2.2 Baddeley et al 1975
2.2.1 if people could remember more short words than long words in a recall test and so demonstrate that pronounciation time, rather than the number of items to be recalled, determines the capacity of STM reading speed was measuresd - participants given 5 words on screen words taken from one-syllable and polysyllablic words - participants asked to write down 5 words in order immediately after - recalled long and short words could recall more short than long words
3 Increasing capacity of STM
3.1 Miller 1956 - the magic number 7 plus or minus 2
3.1.1 he reviewed psychological research and concluded that the span of immediate memory is 7; people can cope well with counting 7 dots flashed onto a screen but not many more than this He also found that people can recall 5 words as well as they can recall 5 letters - we chunk things together and then can remember more
4 Evaluation
4.1 Jacob
4.1.1 individual differences: the digit span not the same for everyone - increased with age - 8 year olds could remember an average of 6.6 digits whereas the mean for a 19 year old = 8.6 digits
4.2 Capacity of STM may be more limited
4.2.1 Cowan 2001 - reviewed a variety of studies on the capacity of STM and concluded that STM is likely to be limited to about 4 chunks. Suggests that STM may not be as extensive as first though
4.2.2 some researchers looked at capacity of STM for visual information and found that 4 items was about the limit (VOGEL ET AL 2001)
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