What are the demographic challenges facing countries?


A-level Geography G2 (1.6 - What are the demographic challenges facing countries?) Mind Map on What are the demographic challenges facing countries?, created by RoryFlynn2 on 05/08/2013.
Mind Map by RoryFlynn2, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by RoryFlynn2 almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

What are the demographic challenges facing countries?
  1. Under/ over population
    1. Under
      1. Advantages
        1. Plenty of food/ resources
          1. More land
            1. Enough housing
            2. Disadvantages
              1. Not enough people to work land
                1. Economy falls
                  1. Can't achieve optimum output
                    1. Poor levels of education and health
                      1. Houses/ property becomes derelict
                        1. Famine
                      2. Over
                        1. Advantages
                          1. High skilled workers
                            1. Diverse culture
                              1. High productivity
                              2. Disadvantages
                                1. High competition
                                  1. Lack of housing
                                    1. Lack of resources
                                      1. High unemployment
                                        1. Lack of fuel
                                          1. Lack of clean water
                                            1. Pollution
                                              1. Disease and poverty
                                              2. Case study: Lake Titicaca, border of Bolivia and Peru
                                                1. Lake is becoming polluted by increasing levels of waste from fast-growing cities
                                                  1. El Alto, Bolivia has grown 4% a year for the last 2 decades as rural peasants seek a better life
                                                    1. 2nd largest city and largest urban centre in the Titicaca watershed
                                                    2. Raw sewage, garbage and industrial waste are all dumped into the Seco River upstream near El Alto
                                                      1. Chronic poverty and lack of access to services - tackling pollution is an issue
                                                        1. "Construction of a new plant to treat more wastewater is at best, years away"
                                                          1. Birth defects in livestock
                                                            1. Shore water is breeding ground for several species of fish on which locals depend for their livelihood
                                                              1. Young fish that formerly grew to maturity have migrated deeper into the lake
                                                                1. Diminished population and size
                                                                2. Now overfishing has forced many fishermen to migrate to cities
                                                          2. Ageing population
                                                            1. Advantages
                                                              1. Elderly who keep working rather than retire can do lower paid jobs
                                                                1. Ageing population = lower interest rates
                                                                  1. Economy benefits of low inflation
                                                                  2. Elderly can maintain culture + religion
                                                                    1. Elderly good source of childcare
                                                                      1. Post-retired people have lots of time to contribute to society
                                                                      2. Disadvantages
                                                                        1. Increased demand for care - added burden
                                                                          1. Higher demand for accommodation
                                                                            1. Retirement homes
                                                                            2. Can create negative inflation
                                                                              1. Japan - Elderly taking pensions + spending none back in economy
                                                                              2. More elderly than working age - drop in productivity
                                                                                1. Increased health care needs + costs
                                                                                  1. Increase of age related deaths
                                                                                  2. Case study: East Devon
                                                                                    1. Lots of holiday homes
                                                                                      1. 53% dependency ratio
                                                                                        1. Pleasant scenery
                                                                                          1. High demand for healthcare + services
                                                                                            1. Operations
                                                                                            2. Most elderly money is spent on health, transport and beauty
                                                                                              1. 'Buttercup buses'
                                                                                                1. Wheelchair access
                                                                                                  1. Needs fundraising
                                                                                                  2. Home delivery - people get food without needing to visit shops
                                                                                                2. HIV/ AIDs
                                                                                                  1. 2008 - 31.3 million with HIV worldwide
                                                                                                    1. 2008 death toll - 2 million
                                                                                                      1. 2006 - $9 billion raised by UN donors
                                                                                                        1. Money goes to 3 areas
                                                                                                          1. Education
                                                                                                            1. Caring for orphans
                                                                                                              1. Treatment for infected
                                                                                                            2. Case study: Sub-Saharan Africa
                                                                                                              1. 22.4 million infected (72% of people worldwide)
                                                                                                                1. Accounts for 15 million of 20 million deaths
                                                                                                                  1. 1.4 million in 2008
                                                                                                                  2. 1.9 million with HIV
                                                                                                                    1. More than 14 million children lost 1 or both parents
                                                                                                                      1. Signs of prevention programmes
                                                                                                                        1. Senegal
                                                                                                                          1. Only 27,000 of 9.6 million HIV positive
                                                                                                                          2. Uganda prevalence rate 14% 1990s
                                                                                                                            1. Low in comparison to some places of 31%
                                                                                                                              1. National rate now 6.1%
                                                                                                                                1. Very stronge anti-HIV messages sent to Uganda
                                                                                                                                  1. Led to increase in sexual abstinence
                                                                                                                        Show full summary Hide full summary


                                                                                                                        Regeneration in Plymouth
                                                                                                                        What are the causes and impacts of changing gender structures?
                                                                                                                        What is the role of migration in population change?
                                                                                                                        How does the social and cultural structure of settlements vary and why?
                                                                                                                        What are the distinctive features of settlements?
                                                                                                                        What are the issues being faced in the CBD?
                                                                                                                        How and why do populations change naturally?
                                                                                                                        The spirals of village growth or decline
                                                                                                                        Rural issues
                                                                                                                        What are the issues of the migration of refugees and asylum seekers?
                                                                                                                        Impacts of international migration