The Second Reich c.1900-1919

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Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-Levels History Mind Map on The Second Reich c.1900-1919, created by amma on 05/08/2013.

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Created by amma over 6 years ago
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The Second Reich c.1900-1919
1 The Constitution - ensured political power remained with the Prussian elites
1.1 The Kaiser

Annotations:

  • -Prussian Monarch and Sovereign of the Kaiserreich -Commander-in-Chief of the Army -In charge of Foreign Policy -Appointed and dissmissed the Chancellor and Govt. Ministers -President of the Bundersrat 
1.1.1 Developed a system of autocratic personal rule - appointed ministers who would further his conservative political agenda and sought to control the work of his Chancellors and government
1.1.2 Prussian Monarch and Sovereign of the Kaiserreich; Commander-in-Chief of the Army; In charge of Foreign Policy; Appointed and dismissed the Chancellor and Govt. Ministers; President of the Bundersrat
1.2 The Chancellor and the Ministers

Annotations:

  • -Responible for presenting legislation to parliament and the implementation of laws -Was accountable only to the Kaiser
1.2.1 von Bulow 1900-1919
1.2.1.1 outwardly co-operated with the Kaiser however sometimes succeeded in sidelining or defeating him - Tariff Law of 1902
1.2.1.2 Sammlungspolitik (foreign policy to 'bring together' the German people - Hottentot Election 1906
1.2.1.3 Tried to appease socialist forces with a series of reforms.
1.2.1.3.1 1903 Sickness Reform
1.2.1.3.2 1908 banned Child Labour
1.2.2 Bethmann Hollweg 1909-1916
1.2.2.1 Illustrates how little constitutional power the Reichstag had - Zabern Affair 1913
1.2.3 Responsible for presenting legislation to parliament and the implementation of laws
1.2.4 Was accountable only to the Kaiser
1.3 The Reichstag

Annotations:

  • -Democratic body of the Consitution  -Could reject, accept or amend legislation -Could be dissolved by the Kaiser at any stage
1.3.1 Left
1.3.1.1 Social Democratic Party - perceived to be revolutionaries but were moderates who supported reforms to better the living and economic conditions for the working class.
1.3.1.2 Centre Party - Represented German Catholics. Party usually worked with more with conservative parties, but at times sided with the SPD (Hottentot Budget of 1906). Often held the balance of power in the Reichstag
1.3.1.3 Liberal Progressives - popular in South Germany. Party advocated federalist structures and demanded democratic reforms. Believed in liberty
1.3.2 Right
1.3.2.1 German Conservative Party - Represented Junkers, wealthy & landowners. Believe in the power of the monarchy, authority and foreign policy.
1.3.2.2 Free Conservatives/Germany Reich Party - Represented more conservative industrialists. Shared the views of Bismarck and believed in protectionism
1.3.2.3 National Liberals - Represented educated, wealthy Protestant middle classes. Supported Kulturkampf. Strong nationalists, wanted a strong navy
1.4 The Bundesrat

Annotations:

  • -Contained representatives appointed by regional state assemblies  -Upper house in Parliament -Prussian veto - 14 members of the house could veto a law - Prussia held the largest percentage of seats in the house. Ensured that the majority of politcial power remained with the Junkers and Prussian elites
1.4.1 Contained representatives appointed by regional state assemblies; upper house in Parliament
1.4.2 Prussian veto - 14 members of the house could veto a law - Prussia held the largest percentage of seats in the house (17 Prussian representatives). Ensured that the majority of politcial power remained with the Junkers and Prussian elites
1.5 The Army

Annotations:

  • -A state within a state - could declare martial law -Only accountable to the Kaiser 
1.5.1 A state within a state - could declare martial law. Only accountable to the Kaiser
1.6 Examples of Tensions in the Political System
1.6.1 1906 Budget Crisis
1.6.1.1 Bulow proposed an increase in indirect taxes and an inheritance tax to decrease treasury deficit due to Weltpolitk. Centre & SPD voted down indirect taxes and Conservatives and allies weakened inheritance tax
1.6.1.1.1 Reichstag had signficant power as they were able to vote again the proposed reforms
1.6.2 1907 Hottentot Election
1.6.2.1 Fought on the issue of nationalism - the Reichstag was dissolved due to the Centre and SPD voting down government plans for a new railway in South Africa. von Bulow, supported by nationalist groups (Pan German League) threatened that if they lost the election, the Centre and SPD would form an alliance. 1907 election - Bulow Bloc formed. Gave Bulow a conservative majority in the Reichstag
1.6.2.1.1 Kaiser had power to dissolve the Reichstag
1.6.2.1.2 Support from the German public for a brutal imperialist agenda
1.6.2.1.3 Pressure groups had significant influence
1.6.3 1908 Daily Telegraph Affair
1.6.3.1 Kaiser made various unguarded comments which were published in the Daily Telegraph. Was perceived to have exceeded his authority in talking to foreign press this way. The affair led to wider criticism of the Kaiser in the Reichstag and the press. Kaiser eventually agreed to guarantee to the Reichstag that he would not make similar pronouncements in future. The Kaiser pressurised von Bulow, whom he felt had been too supportive of the Reichstag, to resign.
1.6.3.1.1 Reichstag and the German press were prepared to criticise the Kaiser
1.6.3.1.2 Reichstag could gain concessions from the Kaiser
1.6.3.1.3 Kaiser could not always act in an autocratic manner
1.6.3.1.4 The role of Chancellor depended on the regard held with the Kaiser
1.6.4 1913 Zabern Affair
1.6.4.1 A German soldier based in Zabern made derogatory comments about the Alsacian locals. Soldier was acquitted by a military count of injuring a man who jeered at him. Reichstag criticised the conduct of the army and a vote of no-confidence was held in which Bethmann-Hollweg lost. However he refused to resign.
1.6.4.1.1 Army operated independently of civil authority in Germany and were accountable to the Kaiser
1.6.4.1.2 Reichstag were not able to hold the Chancellor to account - he only required the support of the Kaiser
1.6.4.1.3 Reichstag could be ignored by both the Kaiser and Army
1.6.4.1.4 Tensions existed between different parts of the German system, especially between the army and the Reichstag
2 Economic and Social Developments
2.1 Economic
2.1.1 Economic Growth
2.1.1.1 between 1890 -1914 growth economy expanded by 4.5% per year
2.1.1.2 Germany's share of world trade was equal to that of Britain
2.1.2 New Industries
2.1.2.1 By 1913, Germany produced approx. 50% of the world's electrical goods
2.1.3 Industrial Economy
2.1.3.1 economic developments resulted in a growing proportion of the population working in the industrial and service sectors of the economy - around 33% to 42%
2.1.4 Decline in agricultural production
2.1.4.1 Competition from Canada and the US squeezed peasantry and farmers
2.2 Social
2.2.1 Urbanisation
2.2.1.1 Population boom and new jobs in industry stimulated migration from country to cities - by 1910 60% of the population lived in urban areas
2.2.1.2 Resulted in poor living standards - supply of houses did meet demand
2.2.1.2.1 Resulted in discontent - trade union membership increased to over 3mil. members by 1913
2.2.2 Increase in Social Tensions
2.2.2.1 Industrial working class were sometimes in conflict with the owners of industry over pay and conditions
2.2.2.2 Junker elites were keen to conserve their dominant positions in society - mittelstand seen as a threat
2.2.2.3 Rise in Socialism
2.2.2.3.1 SPD banned until 1898
3 Impact of World War One
3.1 Political
3.1.1 Initial Unity
3.1.1.1 Burgfriede - a political truce - occurred where the Reichstag gave up all their political power to the Bundesrat under the belief that it was defensive war
3.1.2 Growing disunity
3.1.2.1 By 1917, 42 SPD deputies had broken away to form the anti-war and radical socialist USPD. Mounting concern about the war led to a Reichstag vote, the 'peace resolution', which urged the government to try to negotiate a peace settlement. The left and the centre won the vote by 212 to 126
3.1.2.2 War saw the formation of the communist Spartacist League who agitated for social revolution and an end to the war. Discontent among German workers rose from 1916, as workers were prevented from freely changing jobs under the terms of the Auxilary Service Law of Dec 1916
3.1.2.3 By 1918, widespread discontent.
3.1.2.3.1 Strikes occurred, such as one in Berlin which lasted 5 days and involved half a mil. workers
3.1.2.3.2 Political polarisation had been greater than ever before
3.1.3 The 'silent dictatorship'
3.1.3.1 Government became increasing authoritarian and militaristic - Kaiser was sidelined and effectively replaced by the Supreme Commander of the Army (OHL), Ludendorff and Hindenburg on 29 Aug 1916. They held a 'silent dictatorship'
3.1.3.2 Able to exert powerful influence over political, economic and military events - auxiliary law was introduced. This in turn undermined the constitution
3.1.3.3 Bethmann forced out of office due to his isolation and was replaced by General Michaelis and von Hertiling - puppets to the OHL
3.1.3.4 Military government exacerbated social tension
3.1.4 The German Revolution
3.1.4.1 Revolution from Below
3.1.4.1.1 Popular discontent suggests 'revolution from above' failed to impress
3.1.4.1.1.1 2 Nov 1918 Kiel Mutiny - soliders mutiny against an order to put to sea. Mutiny spreads to other ports and other parts of Germany. 8th Nov numerous workers and soldiers soviets set up in major cities. Bavaria declares itself an independent soviet republic.
3.1.4.1.2 9 Nov 1918: Prince Max resigned and Ebert became Chancellor of govt. made up of SPD & USPD members. Abdication of the Tsar announced. Scheidemann declares Germany to be a Federal Republic whilst Karl Liebknecht (leader of the KPD) declares Germany to be a Free Socialist Republic.
3.1.4.2 Revolution from Above
3.1.4.2.1 8 Aug 1918 Failed Ludendorff Offensive. 29 Sep. Ludendorff sanctioned the transformation of Germany into a parliamentary monarchy. 3 Oct. Prince Max of Baden became new Chancellor of a govt. containing liberal and socialist members
3.1.4.2.1.1 Three class franchise in Prussia; Reichstag was put in control of the Army and Navy; Chancellor was made accountable to the Reichstag.
3.1.4.2.1.2 Reasons for the Revolution from Above
3.1.4.2.1.2.1 Avoid Social Revolution: new govt. could reform the system to placate the possibility of extremism - placate the growing threat of communism
3.1.4.2.1.2.2 Negotiations with the Allies: may be more favourable with a democratic system in place. Additionally US President Wilson would only negotiate with a democratic Germany
3.1.4.2.1.2.3 Stab in the Back: Avoidance of the military being linked with the defeat in the war. It would saddle politicians with the stigma of defeat and allow for the new democratic Reichstag to be scapegoats for defeat
3.1.4.3 Armistice 11/11/1918: The new government signed an armistice agreement with the Allies
3.1.4.4 Revolution Contained
3.1.4.4.1 Ebert was determined to prevent a communist revolution and civil war therefore, he signed the Ebert-Groner Pact and called for early democratic elections
3.1.4.4.1.1 Elections had universal suffrage
3.1.4.4.1.2 Ensured the army could remain unreformed and therefore were in a position to undermine the Republic
3.2 Economic
3.2.1 16% of the £8.4mil. cost of the war was met by taxation
3.2.2 War bonds were also used
3.2.3 Money was printed - led to inflation. Mark declined in value by 75% between 1913-1918
3.2.4 The KRA, War Raw Materials Department, had some success in supplying the German army, but German agriculture was not mobilised effectively and there were food shortages
3.3 Social
3.3.1 2 mil. soldiers were killed and 6.3mil were injured.
3.3.2 Inflation and tight controls on wages led to a fall in living standards by 20-30%
3.3.3 British blockade of German ports led to the 'Turnip winter' of 1917. Food and turnips were the main food available
3.3.4 Food and fuel shortages caused misery and starvation exacerbated the impact of the Spanish flue pandemic in 1918

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