Henry VII: Consolidation of Power (1485-1509)


A level History Mind Map on Henry VII: Consolidation of Power (1485-1509), created by Emily Simms on 03/02/2017.
Emily Simms
Mind Map by Emily Simms, updated more than 1 year ago
Emily Simms
Created by Emily Simms about 6 years ago

Resource summary

Henry VII: Consolidation of Power (1485-1509)
  1. War of the Roses context. Henry Tudor was the son of Edmund Tudor , Earl of Richmond and Margaret Beaufort. Edmund died a few months before Henry was born, so brought up by Mags and his Uncle Jasper. During the Wars of the Roses, leading members of the House of Lancaster were killed. This meant Henry became the Lancastrian with the strongest claim to the throne
    1. Sensing danger, Jasper took Henry to Brittany, France where he spent the next 14 years. Henry lived quietly and posed no threat to Edward IV's reign. However, when Richard III became King, things changed. Rich was unpopular and there was a rebellion against him, led by the Duke of Buckingham. During this time, Henry attracted some key supporters and was living in Paris. He was also receiving financial support from the King of France
      1. August 1485: Henry left France with a small force of French soldiers and landed in South Wales. He soon gained support from a powerful landowner, Rhys Ap Thomas. Henry gained more soldiers and support as he marched through Wales and the Midlands. Rich was residing at Nottingham castle and wanted to stop Henry from reaching London
    2. Battle of Bosworth: August 22nd 1485
      1. Henry's forces were outnumbered and Rich III arrived at the battlefield first, securing a better position. The Earl of Northumberland and the Stanley brothers were present at the battle but initially did not take a side and watched the fighting. Rich attempted to reach Henry and kill him. At this point, Sir William Stanley decided to intervene and his forces attacked Richard's cavalry. The Earl of Northumberland did not come to Richard's aid and the King was eventually killed. Once news of the Rich's death spread, the royal forces dispersed and Henry was crowned on the battlefield by Thomas Stanley
      2. Aims:
        1. Wanted to unite York and Lancaster
          1. Remain King and hand on an unchallenged succession to his descendants- secure and strengthen his dynasty
            1. Establish effective government, maintain law and order, control the nobility and secure the crown's finances
              1. Ensure he kept the throne
        2. Henry's claim:
          1. Main claim to the throne was through his mother, Margaret Beaufort
            1. Margaret was the great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, one of Edward III's sons anf father of Henry IV. This meant that Henry Tudor was the great-great-great grandson of Edward III and a distant cousin of Henry IV. On his father's side, Henry Tudor was also related to Henry VI
              1. Henry's claim was weak compared to those on the Yorkist side. Elizabeth of York , Edmund the Earl of Warwick and the de la Pole brothers all arguably had a stronger claim to the throne than Henry
          2. Securing the throne
            1. Coronation
              1. 30th October 1485: Had his coronation on the day before Parliament met. This was deliberate as he did not want people to think his power as King derived from Parliament. Ceremony was important because the nobilty were required to swear an oath of loyalty. It also required the approval of the Catholic Church. People believed the monarch was divinely chosen by God. Therefore, rebelling against Henry was rebelling against God
              2. Marriage
                1. January 1486: Married Elizabeth of York. He had to ask the permission of the Pope to marry as they were distant cousins. This symbolised a union between the Houses of Lancaster and York and an end to the War of the Roses. He was careful to marry after his coronation as he did not want to suggest his claim to the throne was via his wife. He created the Tudor rose as propaganda.
                2. Securing the succession
                  1. September 1486, Elizabeth gave birth to Prince Arthur. This gave Henry a male heir and created a Tudor dynasty. This would help assure people that the monarchy was secure and stable
                  2. Dating of his reign
                    1. 21st August: Henry dated his reign the day before Battle of Bosworth. This meant that anyone who fought for Rich III at Bosworth would be punished as a traitor. This allowed parliament and Henry to strip lands and titles from powerful Yorkists and imprison the Earl of Warwick by using Acts of Attainder
                    2. Rewarding supporters
                      1. Lord Thomas Stanley was made Earl of Derby. His Uncle Jaspar Tudor became the Duke of Bedford and was put in charge of Wales. Sir William Stanley became Lord Chmaberlain. John de Vere became the Earl of Oxford
                      2. Increasing royal income
                        1. Seizing Yorkist land by Attainders also increased royal income. Parliament also granted Henry tonnage and poundage for life. These were custom duties paid of exports and imports.
                        2. Royal progress
                          1. This was a tour of the kingdom by Henry and his court. Henry would hear petitions and cases. It gave him the opportunity to deliver justice and grant favours. It also made his presense felt throughout the country
                        3. Main threats
                          1. Lovell Rebellion 1486
                            1. Details: Was led by Francis, Viscount Lovell, who had prospere as a key supporter of Richard III and Humphrey Stafford. Lovell tried to raise a rebellion in the North Riding of Yorkshire. Simultaneously, Stafford tried to forces against Henry drawing upon another area of Yorkist support.
                              1. How did Henry deal with them?
                                1. Humphrey Stafford was captured and executed. His younger brother and accomplice, Thomas was pardoned. Lovell managed to escape
                            2. Lambert Simnel 1486-87
                              1. Detail: Following the Lovell rebellion, leading Yorkists realised that a change in strategy was needed if they were to successfully get rid of Henry VII. Their figurehead was Lambert Simnel, who was being passed off as the Earl of Warwick who had been imprisoned by Henry and was even crowned as King Edward in Ireland in May 1487. The conspiracy was put together by John de la Pole, himself a potential Yorkist claimant. Maragaret of Burgundy funded this. Battle of Stoke Field, Henry won and Earl of Oxford helped
                                1. How did Henry deal with them?
                                  1. He was spared and Henry gave him a job in the royal kitchens. In response to seeing the Earl of Warwick impersonator, Henry exhibited the real Earl. Reinstated Earl of Northumberland. Improved coastal defences. Lincoln killed in battle
                              2. Perkin Warbeck 1491-99
                                1. Details: He claimed to be Richard, Duke of York. Began in 1491, impersonated him in Ireland. After a brief appearance at the court of Charles VIIIof France, the following year he was forced to flee from France, to the court of Mags of Burgundy, where he was trained as a potential Yorkist prince and began to draw English courtiers into his conspiracies. Several years after the Battle of Stoke in 1487, Warbeck's first attempt to land in England in 1495 was a disaster. Henry had been informed by one of his royal agents, Sir Robert Clifford, Warbeck was quickly defeated and fled to the court of James IV of Scotland. It could have proved costly because one of the accomplices to the conspirators was Sir William Stanley. He was Henry's step uncle and Lord Chamberlain, heading the household government.
                                  1. How did Henry deal with them?
                                    1. In 1496, a small scottish force on Warbeck's behalf crossed the border but quickly retreated. James then gave into Henry's offer of marriage to his daughter, Margaret. Warbeck then made a final attempt to seek the English throne by trying to exploit the uncertainties of the Cornish rebellion, but his forces were crushed and he was forced to surrender to the King. Henry at first allowed Warbeck to stay at court but confined him to the tower after he tried to escape. He was accused of treason and himself and the Earl of Warwick were tried and executed
                                2. The De La Poles: 1499-1506
                                  1. Details: Edmund (Suffolk) had fled to Flanders in 1498. He was persuaded to return after a sort exile, but once again fed in 1501, this time seeking refuge at the court of Maximillian. For as long as Mags of Burgundy was politically opposed to Henry, Suffolk was safe. Because of friendly relations being restored, Max agreed to give up Suffolk, who was duly imprisoned in the Tower of London
                                    1. How did Henry deal with them?
                                      1. Henry took no further action against him, however Henry VIII had him executed in 1513
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