To what extent did royal power increase in the years 1536-53?


A-Level History Mind Map on To what extent did royal power increase in the years 1536-53?, created by 199627 on 04/30/2014.
Mind Map by 199627, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by 199627 over 9 years ago

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To what extent did royal power increase in the years 1536-53?
  1. Define 'power' --> personal power of the king or the state, did power come from financial security, foreign policy, religious conformation
    1. Control over localities
      1. Wales
        1. Increased control by setting up a government and legal system in 1536
          1. Allowed Welsh MPs into Parliament in 1543
            1. In 1543 a Second Act of Union divided Wales into counties, and appointed Sherriff’s and JPs to govern each one
              1. This can be seen as successful as it was a predominately peaceful campaign and was met without resistance or unrest
                1. This was primarily due to the fact that Cromwell gave the Welsh rights and status, rather than using force, to secure respect for the crown
                2. John Guy argues: "the ultimate object was control"
                  1. But by executing this peacefully the crown gained the respect it needed to secure power
                3. Cromwell wanted to create a "unitary" state where the King had total control over all people and all areas within his realm
                  1. An act of parliament allowed the Crown to resume control of Liberties and Franchises (these allowed private laws and law enforcement to operate alongside, or in place of, royal authority)
                    1. The North
                      1. The crown needed Lord Percy's lands to gain control over the north. Luckily in 1536, they succeeded by forcing Percy to name the King as his heir
                        1. However, the "Percy takeover" most likely contributed the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536, which caused huge unrest in the North
                          1. In 1537, the death of Percy and the defeat of the Pilgrimage were used to gain control in the north
                            1. The Council of the North was set up in 1537
                              1. It ensured the Crown’s religious policies were implemented, monitored the JPs, and provided a court of equity for the north
                                1. Efforts were also made to improve social and economic conditions
                                  1. Eg enclosure and rights of tenure which were causes of the Pilgrimage
                                  2. However, resentment remained
                                    1. Eg the Wakefield Plot of 1541, which planned to murder Archbishop Holgate (the President of the Council of the North) and seize Pontefract Castle
                                  3. But overall, there was little support for magnate uprisings and the area stayed quiet and loyal to the king
                                  4. There was also a diminishing role of magnates as JPs replaced them
                                  5. Finance
                                    1. A king could demonstrate his power and superiority by his wealth and status
                                      1. Under Henry VII the Chamber was the main storage of money
                                        1. The Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536 meant that the Households offices could not cope with the sudden influx of money
                                          1. An Act was passed in 1536 to establish the Court of Augmentations which had its own chancellor and seal
                                            1. By the time of Cromwell's execution the royal finances had been divided into 7 main departments
                                              1. Eg reorganisation of The Court of First Fruits and Tenths established in 1541, which meant clerical money that used to be sent to Rome, was now sent to the crown
                                              2. Pre-Cromwell, Henry's income was around £100,000, after Cromwell had doubled
                                                1. But Henry used too much of his expenditure on expensive wars so much of the income was used up
                                                  1. But Henry saw foreign wars as a source of power so the high expense was justified in his opinion
                                                    1. Despite receiving loans from Parliament and banks, he still owned £100,000 to Antwerp bankers by 1547
                                                  2. During Edward's reign, Somerset then Northumberland controlled finances
                                                    1. Somerset built up heavy debt from the garrisoning of Scotland
                                                      1. Somerset followed policy of debasement to try and solve financial problems which only lead to high inflation
                                                        1. Although Northumberland ended debasement and tried to improve finances, real wages had dropped by up to 60% in this period
                                                      2. Privy Council
                                                        1. Cromwell reorganised it to cope with the new acquisition of land in Wales and Scotland
                                                          1. Cromwell separated the household into a series of different institutions to function efficiently on single tasks
                                                            1. The Council shrunk in size between 1535-37 to around 20 members
                                                              1. In the last years of Henry's reign, the Privy Council met daily at court with between 12-15 councillors in attendance
                                                                1. The Privy Council also gained more popularity from the people as it took on men from lowly backgrounds
                                                                  1. Eg Cromwell was the son of a brewer but was Henry's close personal adviser and made Earl of Essex in 1540
                                                                    1. Henry viewed the Privy councillors in terms of service and reward
                                                                      1. This shows the reversal in the Privy Council from one which required land and money to enter in 1536, to land and money gained from entering the Council
                                                                        1. Loades: "a reversal of emphasis which was one of the most important developments in Tudor government during the first half of the 16th century
                                                                      2. But it can be argued the Privy Council changed more to benefit Cromwell
                                                                        1. John Guy: the Privy Council changed "less because he lived than because he died"
                                                                        2. Henry's death meant that Somerset became Lord Protector
                                                                          1. This meant the Privy Council was often bypassed as Somerset used his own servants to carry out government duties
                                                                          2. Under Northumberland, there is a re-emergence of a collective authority of the Privy Council and it regains its strength
                                                                            1. The Council's authority changed over time but it was made more efficient during Henry's reign as it reduced in size
                                                                            2. Parliament
                                                                              1. There were increases in the number of times Parliament met from 1529 onwards
                                                                                1. Eg from 1529-1536, the sessions of the Reformation Parliament occurred almost annually
                                                                                  1. Eg from 1536 – 1547, only four of those years did not witness Parliament in session. This compares to only 5 Parliament’s between 1509 and 1529
                                                                                  2. Parliament became involved in areas it had not previously been allowed
                                                                                    1. Eg religious matters
                                                                                    2. The Crown still faced opposition in Parliament, those opposed sometimes asked to absent themselves from the House on the day an Act was passed
                                                                                      1. Eg George Throckmorton in 1534
                                                                                      2. The House of Commons benefitted from a greater number of men, acquired its own Journal (an organised system of records) and increased in size (addition of men from Wales)
                                                                                      3. Crushing of magnate power
                                                                                        1. Henry wanted a reduction/destruction of magnate power in the regions
                                                                                          1. In 1538, Cromwell attacking the Courtenay's - the dominant family in the SW
                                                                                            1. This involved the execution of Henry Courtenay, Marquis of Exeter
                                                                                            2. In 1547, the Howard's of Norfolk were also targeted
                                                                                              1. The Duke of Norfolk was imprisoned until 1553 and his son executed
                                                                                                1. However, this also linked to the fall of the conservative faction
                                                                                                2. Sir Edward Neville and Sir Nicholas Carew of Devon and Cornwall were also executed
                                                                                                3. The Royal Progress
                                                                                                  1. The King's progress through his kingdom for several weeks
                                                                                                    1. This helped establish ties with the localities as people could see and meet their King
                                                                                                      1. This helped create a strong patriarchal society
                                                                                                        1. However, it was very expensive as up to 800 men travelled with the monarch
                                                                                                          1. Edward was arguably considered a weaker King because he could not go on a Royal Progress because of his age
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