The Causes of World War 1

Matthew T
Mind Map by Matthew T, updated more than 1 year ago
Matthew T
Created by Matthew T almost 6 years ago


A mind map summarising all the key details of the causes of World War 1 for EdExcel GCSE History A Unit 1: International Relations.

Resource summary

The Causes of World War 1
1 Alliances
1.1 Triple Entente: France, Britain, Russia
1.1.1 1894: Franco-Russian Dual Alliance - G had avoided relations with R and both countries felt isolated
1.1.2 1904: Entente Cordiale - F wanted revenge on Germany and B forced to end splendid isolation, but not a binding agreement
1.1.3 1907: Anglo-Russian Agreement - signed due to influence of F
1.2 Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
1.2.1 1879: G and A-H sign Dual Alliance to strengthen against F, who were bitter after Franco-Prussian War
1.2.2 1882: I join Triple Alliance after struggle of unification, looking for solidarity
1.3 This caused tension as 2 rival factions strived for power in Europe.
2 Military and economic rivalry
2.1 Military
2.1.1 All powers except B introduced conscription - large armies
2.1.2 Military spending doubled between 1900-14
2.1.3 Introduction of Dreadnought made other battleships obsolete
2.1.4 Naval race between B and G - by 1914, B had 27 Dreadnoughts, G had 19
2.2 Economic
2.2.1 1900: B most powerful, large empire + trade
2.2.2 1914: G overtaken, more iron +steel
2.3 This caused tension as paranoia spread around powers, fearing invasion from one another.
3 Colonial rivalry
3.1 Importance of colonies
3.1.1 Cheap raw materials
3.1.2 Places to sell home-produced goods
3.1.3 Important trading/military bases e.g. Suez Canal shortcut to India
3.1.4 Kaiser Wilhelm II: "place in the sun" at expense of B and F
3.2 First Moroccan Crisis, 1905-6
3.2.1 Causes Kaiser Wilhelm wanted to test Entente Cordiale G opposed to F expansion of empire
3.2.2 Events Kaiser Wilhelm makes speech for independence in Tangier F forced to accept international conference Algeciras Conference: only A-H support G, Kaiser backs down
3.2.3 Results F free hand in Morocco Entente Cordiale strengthened B-G rivalry: Kaiser blamed Britain for humiliation
3.3 Agadir Crisis, 1911
3.3.1 Causes F occupy Fez due to rebels G want compensation
3.3.2 Events Kaiser sent gunboat, Panther, to Agadir Lloyd George: Mansion House speech threatening war G back down
3.3.3 Results G unlikely to back down again Humiliated with worthless land in Congo
4 The Balkans
4.1 Underlying causes
4.1.1 Ottoman decline - "sick man of Europe"
4.1.2 A-H threatened by nationalism breaking up empire
4.1.3 Serbia wanted pan-Slavism
4.1.4 R determined to break up A-H + gain access to Med
4.2 Bosnian Crisis, 1908-9
4.2.1 Causes A-H administered Bosnia (1878 Congress of Berlin) Power vacuum created by Ottoman decline Young Turks overthrew Sultan - threatened A-H
4.2.2 Events A-H formally annex Bosnia R demand conference but A-H refuse G forced R to back down
4.2.3 Results R humiliated - unlikely to back down A-H and G committed allies R closer to B and F
4.3 Balkan Wars, 1912-13
4.3.1 Causes Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, Bulgaria wanted to expel Turks permanently Young Turks deposed - Ottomans weak
4.3.2 Events Turks almost driven out of Europe Treaty of London ended war Bulgaria unhappy and declared war on former allies Serbs, Turks, Romanians defeated Bulgars
4.3.3 Results Rivalry between stronger Serbia and A-H increased A-H interfered and took Albania away from Serbia - fury Bulgaria driven toward A-H and G
5 Immediate causes
5.1 Schlieffen Plan
5.1.1 Since 1905, army planned to invade F through Belgium
5.1.2 Belgium protected by B - 1839 Treaty of Westminster "scrap of paper"
5.2 Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, 28 June 1914
5.2.1 Black Hand: terrorist organisation of Serbia, determined for pan-Slavism
5.2.2 Archduke on state visit to Sarajevo
5.2.3 Gavrilo Princip shot Ferdinand + wife Sophie
5.2.4 A-H issue ultimatum - end of independence BUT Serbia accepted all but 1 demand
5.3 Steps to war
5.3.1 28 July: A-H declare war on Serbia
5.3.2 30 July: R mobilise to defend Serbia, G warn to stop
5.3.3 1 August: G war on R, I neutral
5.3.4 2 August: F mobilise
5.3.5 3 August: G war on F
5.3.6 4 August: Schlieffen Plan enacted, B war on G
Show full summary Hide full summary


Conferences of the Cold War
Alina A
The Berlin Crisis
Alina A
Bay of Pigs Invasion : April 1961
Alina A
Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Cominform and Comecon
Alina A
GCSE History – Social Impact of the Nazi State in 1945
Ben C
Germany 1918-39
Cam Burke
Weimar Revision
Tom Mitchell
History of Medicine: Ancient Ideas
James McConnell
Using GoConqr to study History
Sarah Egan
Hitler and the Nazi Party (1919-23)
Adam Collinge
Britain and World War 2
Sarah Egan