Strengths and Limitations of Observations

Robyn Chamberlain
Mind Map by Robyn Chamberlain , updated more than 1 year ago
Robyn Chamberlain
Created by Robyn Chamberlain about 6 years ago
82
4

Description

A-Level Psychology (AS/Psychological Investigations) Mind Map on Strengths and Limitations of Observations, created by Robyn Chamberlain on 05/05/2014.

Resource summary

Strengths and Limitations of Observations

Annotations:

  • Green - Strengths Red - Limitations
1 Participant Observation

Annotations:

  • The observer takes part in what they are observing.
1.1 Increases the Ecological validity

Annotations:

  • As participants will behave as they normally do, unaware that they are being observed.
1.2 Reduces the chance of Demand Characteristics
1.3 Tha participant observer is able to gain valid insight.
1.4 Very unethical if covert

Annotations:

  • -There is no write to withdrawal. -The participants are being decived as they do not know they are being observed. - No consent is being/has been given.
1.5 There is always the chance that a participant realises they are being observed.

Annotations:

  • And will react accordingly, causing the results to lose validility.
1.6 Generally time comsuming in relation to the amount of data that is normally collected.
1.7 Small groups are normally observed which are not representative.
1.8 Low reliability as the observations cannot normally be checked.

Annotations:

  • Mainly for a Covert Observations which cannot be recorded with ease or making the participants realise that they are being observed.
1.9
2 Unstructured Observation

Annotations:

  • The researcher records all of the behaviour that they see. (Event sampling for example.)
3 Non-participant Observation

Annotations:

  • Observing only with no interaction with the participants task.
3.1
4 Undisclosed (Covert) Observations

Annotations:

  • Participants are unaware that they are being observed.
5 Structured Observation

Annotations:

  • The researchers design a type of coding scheme to record participant behaviour.
6 Controlled Observation

Annotations:

  • Normally conducted in laboratory conditions, where variables are controlled throughout the observation.
6.1 The control of variables may create demand characteristics.
6.2
6.3 The control of variables will decrease the ecological validity of the results.
7 Disclosed (Overt) Observations

Annotations:

  • Participants are aware of their observers.
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