Was Germany responsible for World War One

Mind Map by tdkroscoe, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by tdkroscoe almost 7 years ago


A Levels History Mind Map on Was Germany responsible for World War One, created by tdkroscoe on 05/06/2014.

Resource summary

Was Germany responsible for World War One
  1. Situation in 1900
    1. Bismark's alliance system meant that Germany was secure
      1. Britain had ended their splendid isolation as a result of Germany's free hand policy
        1. Between 1898 and 1901 Britain pursued a Anglo-German agreement but Bulow believed that they would end up at loggerheads with France.
          1. In 1904 Britain and France signed the Anglo-French Agreement
          2. The advent of Weltpolitik
            1. This policy began in 1897
              1. This policy was designed to increase Germany's international influence
                1. Bulow - 'We have to put no one in the shade, but we demand our place in the sun'
                  1. Wilhelm II - 'Germany has great tasks to accomplish outside the narrow boundaries of Europe'
              2. Situation by 1914
                1. In 1907 the power structure had changed
                  1. Significant events
                    1. Russo-Japanese war 1904-05
                      1. After the war Russia vowed that they would never be humiliated again. The war also undermined France's position and made Germany feel that they could win a war
                      2. First Morrocan Crisis 1905-06
                        1. Relations in the aftermath between Britain and France were boosted, contrary to Bulow's prediction
                          1. This is an example of German brinkmanship
                        2. Signing of the Triple entente in 1907
                          1. This meant that Germany was surrounded
                            1. Although the agreement was intended for discussing international matters, Germany felt that it was aimed at intimidating them.
                            2. The Bosnian crisis 1908-09
                              1. Germany promised support for Austria and after the annexation of Bosnia was recognised in March it showed that Russia and France would refuse to become involved in international affairs
                              2. Second Morrocan Crisis 1911
                                1. Led to a major dispute between Britain and Germany over the award of compensation
                                  1. Although Germany were compensated with land in the Congo the crisis led to a major international dispute
                                    1. The presses of Britain and Germany both whipped up hatred of the other and called for increases in arms expenditure
                                    2. Balkan Wars 1912-13
                                      1. The map of the Balkans was redrawn
                                        1. Austria began to fear Serbian influence
                                          1. After Serbia attacked Albania and Austria demanded their withdrawal, Kaiser Wilhelm II said - 'I am prepared to draw the sword whenever your move makes it necessary'
                                          2. War council meeting 1912
                                            1. German Army and Navy leaders were in attendance
                                              1. Bethmann did not attend
                                                1. Tirpitz did not want a war
                                                  1. Muller - 'the result amounted to almost nothing'
                                                  2. Response to Wilhelm's outburst and was informal
                                                2. By 1914 there was growing pessimism about the situation. However there was a window of opportunity for Germany as Russian and French changes would take 3 years to take effect. The most influential leaders of Germany felt that war was the only solution. From 1912 the leaders of Germany knew that 1914-15 would be the optimal time for a war as Russia and France would not be ready until 1916.
                                                3. 1914 and Europe's plunge to crisis
                                                  1. The July crisis
                                                    1. June 28 - Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo
                                                      1. July
                                                        1. 5th - Germany assure support for Austria in the event of war with Russia
                                                          1. Known as the 'blank cheque'
                                                          2. 23rd - Austrian ultimatum to Serbia
                                                            1. 24th - Britain urges Germany to mediate with Austria to extend time period for ultimatum
                                                              1. 25th - Austria mobilise on Serbian front
                                                                1. 27th - British fleet ordered not to disperse
                                                                  1. 30th-31st - Russia commences mobilisation
                                                                    1. 31st - Austria commence mobilisation
                                                                    2. August
                                                                      1. 2nd - Germany invade Luxembourg without warning
                                                                        1. Briatin assure France that fleet will deny German fleet access to French ports via the channel
                                                                        2. 1st - France commence mobilisation
                                                                          1. Germany commence mobilisation and declare war on Russia
                                                                          2. 3rd - Belgium request Britain to safeguard her integrity
                                                                            1. Germany declare war on France
                                                                            2. 4th - Germany invade Belgium
                                                                              1. Britain declare war on Germany due to Treaty of London 1839
                                                                              2. 6th - Russia and Austria are at war
                                                                                1. 7th - Montenegro declare war on Austia
                                                                                  1. 12th - Britain declare war on Austria
                                                                              3. Historical interpretations
                                                                                1. Planned and executed war of aggression 'Fischer'
                                                                                  1. Examples
                                                                                    1. Weltpolitik
                                                                                      1. Naval laws of 1898, 1902 and 1906
                                                                                        1. Army went from 663 000 to 800 000
                                                                                          1. Schlieffen plan
                                                                                            1. September programme
                                                                                              1. War council meeting
                                                                                              2. Weaknesses
                                                                                                1. Schlieffen plan could have been preparing for a war on two fronts
                                                                                                  1. War council meeting was not attended by the Chancellor and led to little action and was in response to an outburst by Wilhelm II
                                                                                                    1. September programme was only produced after the outbreak of the war
                                                                                                  2. An offensively conducted defensive war - Conservative historians such as Sturmer
                                                                                                    1. Examples
                                                                                                      1. Alliances would mean that Germany could be crushed
                                                                                                        1. Germany were fearful of an aggressive coalition
                                                                                                        2. Reaction to German fears of encirclement
                                                                                                        3. Escape forwards - Structuralist historians such as Berghahn
                                                                                                          1. German internal issues
                                                                                                            1. Growing power of SPD
                                                                                                              1. Zabern affair
                                                                                                                1. Budget deficit
                                                                                                                2. War to solve domestic issues in Germany
                                                                                                                3. Calculated risk - Strandmann
                                                                                                                  1. Examples
                                                                                                                    1. Russian and French plans would be enacted
                                                                                                                    2. Take a risk when the crisis in July 1914 developed that they could win a war if it began soon
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