The peace settlement 1918-28

Matthew T
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A mind map summarising all the key details of the peace settlement 1918-28 for EdExcel GCSE History A Unit 1: International Relations.

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Matthew T
Created by Matthew T over 5 years ago
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The peace settlement 1918-28
1 Armistice
1.1 Why?
1.1.1 The port of Kiel was blockaded + sailors went on mutiny
1.1.2 Food was in short supply - winter 1917 "the turnip winter"
1.1.3 Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated + fled to Holland
1.2 Terms
1.2.1 Withdraw troops from west
1.2.2 Forfeit gains from Russia
1.2.3 Withdraw 30 miles from east bank of Rhine
1.2.4 Surrender artillery, aircraft, submarines
1.2.5 Navy into Allied ports
1.3 11 Nov 1918
2 Aims of the Big Three
2.1 Clemenceau
2.1.1 Land devastated, millions of deaths
2.1.2 Wanted to make G suffer
2.1.3 Prevent future threats of invasion
2.2 Wilson
2.2.1 Idealist with little involvement in War
2.2.2 Harsh treaty would cause revenge
2.2.3 Influenced by 14 Points: self-determination, no secret diplomacy, co-operation
2.3 Lloyd George
2.3.1 People of B wanted revenge
2.3.2 Wanted trade with G
2.3.3 In the middle
3 Treaty of Versailles, May 1919
3.1 For Germany, no defeated countries allowed
3.2 Article 231
3.2.1 G responsible for war
3.2.2 aka War Guilt Clause
3.3 Military restrictions
3.3.1 Army 100,000
3.3.2 No conscription
3.3.3 No submarines/artillery/aircraft
3.3.4 Navy 6 battleships
3.3.5 Rhineland demilitarised
3.4 Reparations
3.4.1 Compensation for damage
3.4.2 £6.6bn set 1921
3.5 Territorial losses
3.5.1 North Schleswig to Denmark
3.5.2 Danzig and Memel free cities
3.5.3 West Prussia, Pomerania, Posen, Upper Silesia to Poland (Polish corridor)
3.5.4 Saar to League of Nations
3.5.5 Alsace-Lorraine to France
3.5.6 Eupen-Malmedy to Belgium
3.6 Anschluss forbidden
3.7 Forbidden from L of N
4 German reactions
4.1 War guilt clause unjust
4.2 Not all Germans right to self-determination
4.3 Reparations excessive for a crippled economy
4.4 Army too small for a large country
4.5 Insulted by not being in L of N
4.6 Should have joined negotiations
4.7 BUT Brest-Litovsk (Mar 1918) much harsher than Versailles - G imposed on R
5 Other peace treaties
5.1 St Germain-en-Laye, Sep 1919
5.1.1 Austria
5.1.2 Austro-Hungarian empire broken up
5.1.3 Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia new countries
5.1.4 Land to Italy
5.1.5 Army 30,000
5.1.6 Reparations (cancelled due to collapse of Bank of Vienna)
5.2 Neuilly-sur-Seine, Nov 1919
5.2.1 Bulgaria
5.2.2 Land to Yugoslavia and Greece
5.2.3 $400mn reparations
5.2.4 Army 20,000
5.3 Trianon, Jun 1920
5.3.1 Hungary
5.3.2 Land to Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia, Austria (40% of original size)
5.3.3 Army 35,000
5.3.4 Reparations (cancelled)
5.4 Sevres, Aug 1920
5.4.1 Turkey
5.4.2 Limited European possessions around Constantinople
5.4.3 Iraq, Transjordan, Palestine British mandates
5.4.4 Syria, Lebanon French mandates
5.4.5 Arabia independent
5.5 Lausanne, 1923
5.5.1 Turkey
5.5.2 Overruled Sevres (more European land)
5.5.3 Control of Bosphorus and Dardanelles
6 Events 1919-28
6.1 Reparations vastly reduced
6.2 Ruhr occupation 1923 - F + Belgium enter G to take payment but passive resistance forced them out
6.3 Dawes Plan 1924 - reparations fixed to a sliding scale, US loans
6.4 Locarno Pacts 1925 - borders respected
6.5 G enters L of N 1926
6.6 Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 - avoid war at all costs
7 Organisation of the League of Nations
7.1 Covenant laid out aims
7.2 Built upon collective security - members defend one another
7.3 Assembly: Geneva, debating chamber, all members, met annually - powers to admit members and suggest changes
7.4 Council: five permanent B, F, G, I, J, four temporary, 3 times/year, made decisions
7.5 Secretariat: civil service, administration
7.6 Permanent Court of International Justice: the Hague, judges gave decisions without power
7.7 International Labour Organisation: tried to improve working conditions
7.8 Commissions: mandates, slavery, refugees (Nansen)
7.9 Peacekeeping: moral condemnation, economic sanctions, military force
8 Successes and failures of the League of Nations
8.1 Vilna, 1920: rightfully belong to Lithuania, but B + F wanted Polish ally so Poland won
8.2 Aland Islands, 1921: disputed between Sweden + Finland, plebiscite held + Finland won
8.3 Upper Silesia 1921: plebiscite in favour of Germany, but split between G + Poland
8.4 Corfu 1923: Mussolini invade after supposed threat to surveyors, but B + F wanted Mussolini as ally so Greeks forced to compensate Italy
8.5 Greek-Bulgarian dispute 1925: Greece invade Bulgaria but condemnation stopped them
8.6 League lacked key members
8.6.1 Defeated countries - too belligerent
8.6.2 Russia - fear of Communism
8.6.3 USA - Harding's isolationist policies (a strong ally)
8.7 Dependent on B + F
8.8 Veto made it difficult to carry out action
8.9 Sanctions applied half-heartedly
8.10 Depression led to rise of dictators

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