PE Theories

joe_boy95
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

pe (*All the theories) Mind Map on PE Theories, created by joe_boy95 on 05/09/2014.

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joe_boy95
Created by joe_boy95 over 5 years ago
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PE Theories
1 Mechanical Concepts
1.1 Newtons first law
1.1.1 A force is needed to change a body's state of motion
1.2 Newtons second law
1.2.1 The magnitude and direction of applied force determines the magnitude and direction of acceleration given to a body
1.3 Newtons third law
1.3.1 to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
2 Personality
2.1 Hollander's model
2.1.1 Hollander's Theory suggests that our personality stems from an inner core of beliefs and attitudes
2.1.1.1 The inner core is fairly permenant and has a direct effect on the next layers
2.1.1.2 The middle layer shows typical responses showing how an individual is likely to respond in a situation
2.1.1.3 The outer layer shows the role related behaviour, showing how an individual would respond differently in a particular situation and depending on how we feel
2.1.1.4
2.2 interactionist
2.2.1 Interactionist theories suggest that our behaviour depends on the interaction between our inherited, enduring personality traits and the environment or situation in which we find ourselves
2.2.1.1 Kurt Lewins formula: B=f(P.E)
2.2.1.1.1 According to the formula, our behaviour (B) is afunction (f) of our personality traits (P) and the environment (E)
2.2.1.1.2 Our personal variables (traits) are internal causes of behaviour and environmental variables are external causes of behaviour
2.3 Profile of mood states (POMS)
2.3.1 A way of measuring the moods of those who participate in sport
2.3.1.1 It measures: Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigour, Fatigue and confusion
2.3.1.2 The iceberg profile is the POMS profile that is associated with successful athletes
2.3.1.2.1
2.4 Achievement motivation
2.4.1 the theory that an individual's behaviour is determined by their interaction with the environment and their desire to succeed
2.4.1.1 nAch
2.4.1.1.1 the motivation to suceed or attain particular goals
2.4.1.2 Naf
2.4.1.2.1 the motivation to avoid failure
3 Arousal
3.1 Drive Theory
3.1.1 a theory of arousal that proposes a linear relationship between arousal and performance, as arousal increase so does the quality of performance
3.2 inverted U theory
3.2.1 a theory of arousal that considers that optimal performance occurs when the performer reaches an optimal level of arousal after which there is a decline in the level of performance
3.3 Catastrophe theory
3.3.1 a theory that predicts a rapid decline in performance resulting from the combination of high cognitive anxirty and increasing somatic anxiety
3.4 reversal theory
3.4.1 the proposal that whether a performer views arousal as pleasant (or unpleasant) is likely to have a positive (or negative) impact on performance
3.5 Zone of optimal functioning
3.5.1 the area between the upper and lower levels of arousal within which optimal performance takes place
4 Changing Behaviour
4.1 The Triadic model
4.1.1 a hypothetical, testable proposition that holds that attitudes are made of three components: cognitive,affective and behavioural
4.1.1.1 Cognitive component - what we know and believe about the attitude object
4.1.1.2 Affective component - how we feel about the attitude object
4.1.1.3 Behavioural component - how we actually behave towards, respond to or intend to respond to the attitude object
4.2 The Fishbein and Ajzeden model
4.2.1 allows you to predict specific intentions and behaviours
4.2.1.1
4.3 Persuasive communication
4.3.1 an active, non-cercive attempt to reinforce, modify or change the attitude of others
4.3.1.1
4.4 Weiner's attribution theory
4.4.1 the process of attributing one's performance (behaviour) to specific causes has three stages:
4.4.1.1
4.4.1.2 1. as the performer, you must be aware of your performance or behaviour
4.4.1.3 2. you must accept that the behaviour was intentional
4.4.1.4 3. you must accept that behaviour is caused either by internal factors or external factors
5 confidence
5.1 self efficacy
5.1.1 situation- specific self-confidence
5.1.2 Factors affecting self efficay
5.1.2.1 It is based on four primary sources of information
5.1.2.1.1
5.2 social facilitation
5.2.1 the behavioural effects due to the presence of others
5.2.1.1 this can improve performance on simple/well learned tasks alternatively it can decrease performance on complex taks or ones that had not been well learnt
5.2.1.1.1
5.2.2 Evaluation apprehension
5.2.2.1 This theory of social facilitation was put forward by Cotrell, he said that rather than the mere presence of others, it is the worry of being judged that affects performance.
5.3 Baron's distraction-conflict theory
5.3.1
6 Group success
6.1 ringleman effect
6.1.1 the diminishing contribution of each individual as group size increases
6.2 tuckman's model
6.2.1 suggests that groups go through each of the stages while in a process of development and as a consequence the norms, roles, individual relationships and effects on each other change and evolve
6.2.1.1
6.3 cohesion
6.3.1 the dynamic forces that cause a team to stick together
6.3.1.1 task cohesion is found in a group that is bound together in a drive to achieve a common objective, a focus on the task
6.3.1.2 social cohesion found in a group that is bound together by social bonds, social attractiveness and relationships
6.4 Carron
6.4.1 there are four key antecedents to the development of cohesion
6.4.1.1 environmental factors
6.4.1.2 personal factors
6.4.1.3 leadership-based factors
6.4.1.4 team-based factors
6.4.1.5
6.5 Steiner's model
6.5.1 actual productivity = potential productivity - losses due to faulty group processes
6.6 social loafing
6.6.1 loss of individual effort in a group due to a reduction in motivation
7 Leadership
7.1 fiedler's contingency model
7.1.1 the model suggests that a leader should decide whether to be task or person oriented in their leadership style and the decision should depend on hte favourableness of the situation.
7.1.1.1 task-oriented leader
7.1.1.1.1 a leader who concentrates on setting goals and completing the task as quickly as possible
7.1.1.2 person-oriented leader
7.1.1.2.1 a leader who concentrates on developing interpersonal relations within the group
7.1.1.3
7.2 chelladurai
7.2.1
7.2.2 argues that effective leadership can and will vary, depending on the characteristics of the athletes and the constraints of the situation
7.2.2.1 he suggested that there are various types of leadership behaviour and developed the leadership scale of sports to measure leadership behaviours. This scale has five dimensions
7.2.2.1.1 training and instruction behaviour
7.2.2.1.2 democratic behaviour
7.2.2.1.3 autocratic behaviour
7.2.2.1.4 social support behaviour
7.2.2.1.5 rewarding behaviour
7.2.2.1.6 Type of leader needs to be very specific to be most effective and must take into consideration age, gender and level of performer
7.3 styles of leadership
7.3.1 laissez-faire
7.3.1.1 Laissez Faire Leadership refers to a non-authoritarian leadership style, also known as delegative leadership. Laissez faire leaders usually try to give the least possible guidance to subordinates, and is proven to be the least effective style of leadership.
7.3.2 Autocratic
7.3.2.1 Autocratic leadership is a leadership style characterized by individual control over all decisions and little input from group members. Autocratic leaders typically make choices based on their own ideas and judgments and rarely accept advice from followers no matter how it may benefit the group.
7.3.3 Democratic
7.3.3.1 Democratic leadership, also known as participative leadership, is a type of leadership style in which members of the group take a more participative role in the decision-making process.