Who was to blame for the failure of constitutional monarchy?


History (French Revolution) Mind Map on Who was to blame for the failure of constitutional monarchy?, created by 10awalls on 05/10/2014.
Mind Map by 10awalls, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by 10awalls over 9 years ago

Resource summary

Who was to blame for the failure of constitutional monarchy?
  1. The October Days
    1. What happened?
      1. Louis refusal to approve Assembly’s decrees creates tension
        1. October 1st 1789, a banquet is thrown at Versailles for the Flanders regiment, where anti-revolutionary speeches are made and officers trampled on the tricolore cockade.
          1. The banquet coincided with food shortages in Paris and a crowd of women, perhaps 7000, make the 5 hour march to Versailles
            1. They invade the National Assembly and send a deputation to the king demanding he approved the August decrees and return to Paris. On 6th October, Louis and his family head to the Tuileries.
      2. Significance?
        1. The King was effectively imprisoned
          1. Instead of ‘Louis, King of France and Navarre’, he became ‘Louis, by the Grace of God and the constitutional law of the State, King of France’ – i.e. subordinate to law and his subjects became citizens
            1. But.. In some ways the October Days gave the king a new power. The Assembly began to fear the mob rule of Parisian crowd. The Assembly wanted to bring the revolution to an end before it went too far. The king was seen as the only man who could do this.
          2. The Constitution
            1. After the new Constitution Louis now had different rulings like:
              1. He had the right to appoint ministers and military commanders
                1. Suspensive veto (but could not be applied to financial and constitutional matters such as new taxes)
                  1. Dependent on Assembly for foreign policy as he needed its consent before he could declare war
                    1. Agreed that his office, although heredity was subordinate to assembly, as it passed the laws which king had to obey. ‘In France there is no authority superior to the law - it is only by means of the law that the king reigns “
                  2. But was the king sincere?
                    1. a devout man, the civil constitution of clergy offended his conscience
                      1. Under the influence of Marie-Antoinette who loathed her treatment
                      2. The Flight to Varennes
                        1. What happens?
                          1. June 1790, Louis flees from Paris and heads to Lorraine and to put himself under protection of military commander.
                            1. The hope was to renegotiated the constitution from a position of strength.
                              1. He fails – recognised in Varennes by local postmaster Drouet, the royal coach is brought back to Paris in silence.
                            2. Significance of the flight...
                              1. Before he left, Louis wrote a note critical of the revolution..
                                1. ‘the king does not think it would be possible a govern so large and important a kingdom as France by the means established by the National Assembly such as they exist in at present.’
                                2. Republicanism starts to grow. On 24th June 1791, 30,000 people marched to National Assembly in support of petition calling for king’s dismissal. The Assembly refused.
                                  1. When 50,000 Parisians met at the Champ de Mars on 16th July to sign a petition against the king, the Assembly declared martial law and the National Guard fired on peaceful and unarmed crowd.
                                    1. The massacre hardened the divisions between those who wanted to retain the monarchy and those who believed that the revolution could never be complete with Louis still on the throne.
                                  2. People no longer believe Louis has the interest of the French people at heart and the no longer trust him.
                                3. The Brunswick Manifesto
                                  1. the Commander in chief of Austrian-Prussian armies issues the Brunswick Manifesto promising that that if Louis or the royal family were harmed, the city would face an ‘exemplary vengeance’.
                                  2. Attack on Tuileries, August 1792
                                    1. Believing the Legisaltive Assembly will not call for a republic, the crowd take matters into their own hands...
                                      1. August 9th, 1792 – invasion of Tuileries by Parisian with republican sympathisers in the National Guard
                                        1. The King seeks safety from the mob by going to the Legislative Assembly
                                          1. Mob invade the Assembly and force the suspension of the monarchy
                                            1. They call for a new government based on universal suffrage (instead of active citizenry) to decide on the future of the French government; this new government is known as the National Convention
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