Fourth Crusade Failure

Lucy Mountain
Mind Map by Lucy Mountain, updated more than 1 year ago
Lucy Mountain
Created by Lucy Mountain over 3 years ago


gcse History Mind Map on Fourth Crusade Failure , created by Lucy Mountain on 05/28/2017.

Resource summary

Fourth Crusade Failure
1 Bad Leadership
1.1 24th May 1201 Count Thibaut of Champagne died, lost their chosen leader and many of his knights left. LEd to the leadership of Boniface of Montferrat.
1.2 Compiegne Summer 1200, French barons met, appointed six representatives.
1.2.1 Conan of Bethune
1.2.2 Geoffrey of Villehardouin.
1.2.3 Representatives were sent with blank checks with no idea of numbers at the start of 1201. They agreed to transport 33,5000 crusaders, provide food for nine months, an escort of 50 galleys at a rate of five silver marks per horse and two per man. A total cost of 85,000 marks. They agreed to share the conquests. Venice asked for one year to complete the request. May 1201, Innocent confimed this, but at this point he prohibited allies from attacking fellow Christians, except if they set out to harm the Cruasde. A year passed, Venice was ready June 24th 1202, but only around 15,000 Crusaders arrived. Cheaper.alternative routes. They were 34,000 marks short. 85,000 marks twice the annual income of the English and French crown, would need twice as many men as Frederick Barbarossa
1.3 Hagenau Plot Christmas 1201 Philip of Swabia. On taking the cross Boniface was required to visit his suzerain POS. Both spent the Christmas of 1201 together. There was the arrival of Philip's brother in law, Alexios II. Philip's wife Irene was the daughter of Isaac II (deposed emperor blinded and imprisoned by Alexios III) So, Irene's brother Alexius II had escaped toured Europe looking for support. Philip, Boniface and Alexius came togethre and possib;y hatched a plot to put Alexius II back on the throne.
1.4 Absence of a clear strong leader. They initally planned to take Egypt and then Jersualem, kpet the rank and file unaware of this.
1.4.1 Groups of the Crusaders had made their way directly to Acre, they knew nothing of the plan to attack Egypt.
1.4.2 Strategy had been discussed between the French and the Veneitians, both recognised the importance of Egypt. So, many sailed not from Venice but from Marseilles, directly to Acre.
1.5 Suppression of Venetian excommunication by Boniface once the attack on Zara had taken place, in order to try to keep the army together.
1.6 Blindly followed the Venetians to try to cover their debt. So, when Zara did become its destination many of the Crusaders deserted, around 2000. Including Simon de Montfort, but even more deserted when Byzantium became to main destination.
1.7 Appeal of Young Alexius
2 Bad Luck
2.1 21st May 1201 death of Count Thibaut of Champagne
2.2 Hijacked Crusade.
3 Weak Byzantium
3.1 1171 Manuel had lured 20,000 Venetians into the city and confiscated their goods.
3.2 1182 Andronikos's siezure of power arrived on a wave of anti latin feeling, (He overthrew pro Latin Maria, wife of Manuel) Inhabitants of Constantinople engaged in mass killings of Venetians in the streets.
3.3 1185 William of Sicily had attacked the Greeks but lost. Fear of Western invasion never left the Emperor.
3.3.1 Drained B resources
3.4 German Crusaders of Frederick Barbarossa and Henry Vi left their mark on the Emperor.
3.5 Emperors used the Westerners as an 'easy' target' to promote their own popularity and despite attempts at rapproachment (Reiner of Montferrat's marriage to Manuel's daughter Maria, ended in Reiner's murder in the massacre of 1182.
3.6 Geographical position, resurgent turks had gained some land. BULGARS had broken away from the Empire in 1185, meaning that attention, men, money and resources had to be diverted to Byzantium's Northern boarder.
3.7 Emperor changes, lack of stability. Maria's son Alexius II, pro latin, was overthrown by Andronikos 1182
3.7.1 Andronikos' harsh rule led to him being overthrown by Isaac, who handed him over to a mob to be tortured for three days. Isaac overthrown by his brother Alexius III as he had suffered military defeats. Placed in a prison with his son and blinded. Alexius III was the emperor at the start of the Fourth Crusade.
4 Venice
4.1 1198 CRYSOBULL granted by Alexius III confirmed Venice's priveleges, freed them from all commercial taxes and names all the important provinces and towns. This gave Venice a greater security therefore, Venice had alot to lose by attacking Constantinople, better for them to attack Egypt.
4.1.1 This created good relations between them, clear by Dandolo's desire to withdraw ships that were threatening the Byzantine coast from the Adriatic.
4.1.2 Strengthen commercial position in Egypt, had a strong paternership with Alexandria which they wouldn't want to disrupt.
4.2 Should they have questioned the crusaders' numbers? Muster date of 1199 was a failure, However, there was an evident increase of the rise of Crusader numbers.
4.3 Venetians knew that the attack on Zara (siege November 1202) would be condemned. Fact is clear as they didn't allow Peter Capuano the papal legate to travel in his capacity as legate, thus preventing him from officially denouncing the campaign.
4.4 Venetians did suffer during the anti Latin uprisings in both 1171 and 1182 when they were expelled and their property confiscated and suffered economic problems. But, reparations had been made, the compensation made in 1184 hadn't been fully paid, but the Doge was happy to leave the outstanding 200 marks.
4.5 Their willingness to attack Zara shows a lack of care for the Cruasders cause. 2000 deserters, including the influential leader of Simon de Montfort.
4.6 Crusaders gathered at Venice June 24th 1202.
4.7 September 1202 key moment, Doge offered to postpone the payment, for an attack on Zara. if Venice could help to conquer Egypt then it would gain Alexandretta, the richest point in the Mediterranean.
4.8 Doge eager to ensure the salvation of his soul, took the cross himself to influence the Crusade, and thousands of Venetians followed.
4.8.1 Doge was eager to follow his father and grandfather who fought in the Crusade of 1122. Doge saw no contradictions in winning and salvation for his soul.
4.9 Intrusion of Venice interests in the Crusade
5 Pope Innocent III
5.1 Loss of an expedition he wanted to make his own. Crusaders suffered from the assignment to the Holy land as the money was raised from ecclesiastical sources. They were unable to finance the Crusade itself. Therefore this left it to whatever means the participants could muster.
5.2 January 8th 1198 Innocent head of the church
5.2.1 Weakness of Papal power, sack of Constantinople, rape of nuns.
5.3 Innocent was mistaken in thinking increased papal control of the crusade would deepen religious commitment and guarantee success.
5.4 Innocent wanted to strengthen the religious commitment
5.4.1 Discouraged halfhearted and inappropriate recruits by insistng that Crusaders must serve for to years in the East.
5.4.2 Relying on individuals to pay their own cost stopped many from Crusading, so Innocent introduced a church income tax to help the poorer Crusaders and hire mercenaries. Lords and knights were still required tp ay their own way. Clergy was reluctant to pay. No kings, so they were deprived of a national taxation. Innocent had introduced clerical tax on the Church, but this money was sent to the East and wasn't available to pay off the Venetians.
5.4.3 Innocent encouraged extra donations by offering indugences to people who would finance someone else to join the Crusade on their behalf. Knights could now go to heaven withut needing to leave home. So less knights went with their feuditories
5.5 Byzantine Emperor refused Pope's request of support, high handed tone so Emperor refused.
5.6 Innocent failed to attract the parties that he needed. Ancestors were motivated spiritually, hoever C13th knights were motivated by notions of chivalry.Knights service was to feudal lord, rather than directly to the church.
5.7 too ambitious. Actual power in Rome was far too restricted. Weak, canon law prohibited priests from taking military command. Pope was forced to rely upon others.
5.8 Emeric the ruler of Zara, November 1202. Peter Capiano, Innocent's papal legate, despite agreement of not attacking fellow Christians, Peter accepted the decision to attack Zara for the greater good of keeping the Crusade going, but he completely ignored Innocent. His bishops hid the letter which prohibited the attack. So, Innocent could call a Crusade and direct its preaching, but not the actual Crusade itself. Or fund it.
5.9 Innocents weakness clear at the end of the Crusade. 1205, Peter Capiano called an end to the Crusade to ensure that knights stayed to defend the new empire of Constantinople. Then he told Innocent who was angry but unable to do anything. Made it clear that he would have been happier with the capture of Jerusalem.
5.9.1 Lured by possibility of closer tires with Rome. Also in the promise of Baldwin new latin emperor who imposed a lLatin Patriarch and the removal of Philip's allies.
5.10 Innocent was no match for the Doge. Zara wasn't returned to Hungary, clear excommunications and entreaties were ignored.
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