1.1 24th May 1201 Count Thibaut of Champagne died,
lost their chosen leader and many of his knights left.
LEd to the leadership of Boniface of Montferrat.
1.2 Compiegne Summer
1200, French barons
met, appointed six
1.2.1 Conan of Bethune
1.2.2 Geoffrey of Villehardouin.
1.2.3 Representatives were sent with blank
checks with no idea of numbers at the
start of 1201.
184.108.40.206 They agreed to transport 33,5000 crusaders, provide food for
nine months, an escort of 50 galleys at a rate of five silver
marks per horse and two per man. A total cost of 85,000
marks. They agreed to share the conquests. Venice asked for
one year to complete the request.
220.127.116.11.1 May 1201, Innocent confimed this, but at this
point he prohibited allies from attacking
fellow Christians, except if they set out to
harm the Cruasde.
18.104.22.168.1.1 A year passed, Venice was ready June
24th 1202, but only around 15,000
Crusaders arrived. Cheaper.alternative
routes. They were 34,000 marks short.
22.214.171.124.2 85,000 marks twice the
annual income of the
English and French crown,
would need twice as many
men as Frederick
1.3 Hagenau Plot Christmas 1201 Philip of Swabia. On taking the cross Boniface was
required to visit his suzerain POS. Both spent the Christmas of 1201 together. There
was the arrival of Philip's brother in law, Alexios II. Philip's wife Irene was the
daughter of Isaac II (deposed emperor blinded and imprisoned by Alexios III) So,
Irene's brother Alexius II had escaped toured Europe looking for support. Philip,
Boniface and Alexius came togethre and possib;y hatched a plot to put Alexius II
back on the throne.
1.4 Absence of a clear strong leader.
They initally planned to take
Egypt and then Jersualem, kpet
the rank and file unaware of this.
1.4.1 Groups of the Crusaders had made
their way directly to Acre, they
knew nothing of the plan to attack
1.4.2 Strategy had been discussed between the
French and the Veneitians, both recognised
the importance of Egypt. So, many sailed
not from Venice but from Marseilles,
directly to Acre.
1.5 Suppression of
Boniface once the
attack on Zara had
taken place, in order to
try to keep the army
1.6 Blindly followed the Venetians to try to cover
their debt. So, when Zara did become its
destination many of the Crusaders deserted,
around 2000. Including Simon de Montfort,
but even more deserted when Byzantium
became to main destination.
1.7 Appeal of Young Alexius
2 Bad Luck
2.1 21st May 1201 death of
Count Thibaut of
2.2 Hijacked Crusade.
3 Weak Byzantium
3.1 1171 Manuel had lured 20,000 Venetians into the city and
confiscated their goods.
3.2 1182 Andronikos's siezure of power arrived on a
wave of anti latin feeling, (He overthrew pro
Latin Maria, wife of Manuel) Inhabitants of
Constantinople engaged in mass killings of
Venetians in the streets.
3.3 1185 William of Sicily had attacked
the Greeks but lost. Fear of
Western invasion never left the
3.3.1 Drained B resources
3.4 German Crusaders of Frederick Barbarossa
and Henry Vi left their mark on the Emperor.
3.5 Emperors used the Westerners as an 'easy' target' to
promote their own popularity and despite attempts at
rapproachment (Reiner of Montferrat's marriage to
Manuel's daughter Maria, ended in Reiner's murder in
the massacre of 1182.
3.6 Geographical position, resurgent turks
had gained some land. BULGARS had
broken away from the Empire in 1185,
meaning that attention, men, money
and resources had to be diverted to
Byzantium's Northern boarder.
3.7 Emperor changes, lack of stability.
Maria's son Alexius II, pro latin,
was overthrown by Andronikos 1182
3.7.1 Andronikos' harsh rule led to him being
overthrown by Isaac, who handed him over to a
mob to be tortured for three days.
126.96.36.199 Isaac overthrown by his brother Alexius III as he had suffered military defeats.
Placed in a prison with his son and blinded.
188.8.131.52.1 Alexius III was the emperor at the start of the Fourth
4.1 1198 CRYSOBULL granted by
Alexius III confirmed Venice's
priveleges, freed them from all
commercial taxes and names all
the important provinces and
towns. This gave Venice a greater
security therefore, Venice had
alot to lose by attacking
Constantinople, better for them
to attack Egypt.
4.1.1 This created good relations between them,
clear by Dandolo's desire to withdraw ships
that were threatening the Byzantine coast
from the Adriatic.
4.1.2 Strengthen commercial position
in Egypt, had a strong
paternership with Alexandria
which they wouldn't want to
4.2 Should they have questioned
the crusaders' numbers?
Muster date of 1199 was a
failure, However, there was an
evident increase of the rise of
4.3 Venetians knew that the attack on Zara (siege
November 1202) would be condemned. Fact is clear
as they didn't allow Peter Capuano the papal legate
to travel in his capacity as legate, thus preventing
him from officially denouncing the campaign.
4.4 Venetians did suffer during the anti Latin uprisings in
both 1171 and 1182 when they were expelled and their
property confiscated and suffered economic problems.
But, reparations had been made, the compensation
made in 1184 hadn't been fully paid, but the Doge was
happy to leave the outstanding 200 marks.
4.5 Their willingness to attack Zara
shows a lack of care for the Cruasders
cause. 2000 deserters, including the
influential leader of Simon de
4.6 Crusaders gathered at Venice June 24th 1202.
4.7 September 1202 key moment, Doge offered
to postpone the payment, for an attack on
Zara. if Venice could help to conquer Egypt
then it would gain Alexandretta, the richest
point in the Mediterranean.
4.8 Doge eager to ensure the salvation of his
soul, took the cross himself to influence the
Crusade, and thousands of Venetians
4.8.1 Doge was eager to follow his father and
grandfather who fought in the Crusade
of 1122. Doge saw no contradictions in
winning and salvation for his soul.
4.9 Intrusion of Venice interests in the Crusade
5 Pope Innocent III
5.1 Loss of an expedition he wanted to make his own.
Crusaders suffered from the assignment to the Holy land
as the money was raised from ecclesiastical sources. They
were unable to finance the Crusade itself. Therefore this
left it to whatever means the participants could muster.
5.2 January 8th 1198 Innocent
head of the church
5.2.1 Weakness of Papal power, sack of
Constantinople, rape of nuns.
5.3 Innocent was mistaken in
thinking increased papal
control of the crusade would
deepen religious commitment
and guarantee success.
5.4 Innocent wanted to strengthen the religious commitment
5.4.1 Discouraged halfhearted and
inappropriate recruits by insistng
that Crusaders must serve for to
years in the East.
5.4.2 Relying on individuals to pay their own cost stopped
many from Crusading, so Innocent introduced a
church income tax to help the poorer Crusaders and
hire mercenaries. Lords and knights were still
required tp ay their own way.
184.108.40.206 Clergy was reluctant to pay.
220.127.116.11.1 No kings, so they were
deprived of a national
18.104.22.168.2 Innocent had introduced clerical tax on the Church,
but this money was sent to the East and wasn't
available to pay off the Venetians.
5.4.3 Innocent encouraged extra donations by offering
indugences to people who would finance someone else
to join the Crusade on their behalf. Knights could now
go to heaven withut needing to leave home. So less
knights went with their feuditories
5.5 Byzantine Emperor refused Pope's request
of support, high handed tone so Emperor
5.6 Innocent failed to attract the parties that he needed.
Ancestors were motivated spiritually, hoever C13th
knights were motivated by notions of chivalry.Knights
service was to feudal lord, rather than directly to the
5.7 too ambitious. Actual power in Rome was far too
restricted. Weak, canon law prohibited priests from
taking military command. Pope was forced to rely
5.8 Emeric the ruler of Zara, November 1202. Peter Capiano,
Innocent's papal legate, despite agreement of not
attacking fellow Christians, Peter accepted the decision
to attack Zara for the greater good of keeping the
Crusade going, but he completely ignored Innocent. His
bishops hid the letter which prohibited the attack. So,
Innocent could call a Crusade and direct its preaching,
but not the actual Crusade itself. Or fund it.
5.9 Innocents weakness clear at the end of the Crusade.
1205, Peter Capiano called an end to the Crusade to
ensure that knights stayed to defend the new
empire of Constantinople. Then he told Innocent
who was angry but unable to do anything. Made it
clear that he would have been happier with the
capture of Jerusalem.
5.9.1 Lured by possibility of closer tires
22.214.171.124 Also in the promise of Baldwin
new latin emperor who
imposed a lLatin Patriarch and
the removal of Philip's allies.
5.10 Innocent was no match for the Doge. Zara wasn't returned to
Hungary, clear excommunications and entreaties were ignored.