Lenin: Theme 4


A level History Mind Map on Lenin: Theme 4, created by Lily Woods on 06/06/2017.
Lily Woods
Mind Map by Lily Woods, updated more than 1 year ago
Lily Woods
Created by Lily Woods about 7 years ago

Resource summary

Lenin: Theme 4
  1. Industrial and employment benefits
    1. Successes
      1. Vast number of jobs created
        1. Piecework rates expanded, increasing opportunities to earn more money
          1. Rewards for model workers
            1. More women employed giving them more opportunities
            2. Failures
              1. Division at work between industrial workers and peasants
                1. Poor working conditions
                  1. Low productivity
                    1. Labour shortages
                      1. Long working hours
                        1. Wage gap
                      2. Housing benefits
                        1. Successes
                          1. Low rents
                          2. Failures
                            1. Slow to make an impact
                              1. Not enough housing to meet the needs of all
                                1. Distribution of housing based on rank within the communist party
                              2. Social benefits
                                1. Successes
                                  1. Cheap food in work canteens
                                    1. Work clothes given for free
                                      1. State subsidised vacations
                                        1. Sick pay was given
                                          1. Healthcare controlled epidemics
                                            1. Cheap medicines
                                            2. Failures
                                              1. These provisions generally not available in rural areas
                                            3. Women
                                              1. No longer needed husband's permission to take a job or study at university
                                                1. Equal pay for men and women made legal in Dec 1917 with maternity leave granted, but this was slow to have an impact
                                                  1. Impact of civil war
                                                    1. Women worked in factories, but childcare provision was inadequate
                                                      1. Government lacked resources to build creches
                                                        1. Women lost jobs when soldiers returned
                                                          1. After the war many were left homeless, causing a rise in prostitution
                                                          2. Islamic Women
                                                            1. Opportunities increased and female brigade leaders and tractor drivers were celebrated in films and posters
                                                              1. But traditional Islamic attitudes were slow to change with resistance often violent
                                                              2. Politics: female role was limited throughout the existence of the USSR
                                                              3. Education
                                                                1. Under Lunachevsky
                                                                  1. 1917: programme to provide free compulsory education for all aged 7-17
                                                                    1. 1918: existing church schools taken over by the government, education at primary and secondary level based on comprehensive model
                                                                      1. Lack of resources during civil war meant compulsory education didn't materialise
                                                                        1. Higher education: from 1917, universities were opened to all with courses laid on for those with no formal qualifications
                                                                        2. Obstacles to expansion
                                                                          1. Civil war caused lack of resources so many schools had to shut during winter
                                                                            1. Low wages and status discouraged people from becoming teachers
                                                                              1. School transport underfunded
                                                                              2. Adult education: short courses introduced to teach adults basic numeracy and literacy, with evening classes as well
                                                                                1. Reduction of illiteracy
                                                                                  1. 1919: Bolsheviks launched programme to make all citizens between 8 and 50 literate
                                                                                    1. Liquidation points set up where people could take literacy classes
                                                                                    2. Purpose of the curriculum
                                                                                      1. Key role in instilling socialist values into the population, securing support for the regime and providing social stablility
                                                                                        1. Used to attack traditional practices and beliefs by reducing hold of religion and superstition
                                                                                          1. Bought sense of unity to different ethnic groups
                                                                                            1. Enabled population to acquire skills and expertise needed in modern economy
                                                                                            2. Early radicalism
                                                                                              1. Corporal punishment forbidden
                                                                                                1. Classrooms renamed "laboratories of learning"
                                                                                                  1. Children to have influential voice in running of school
                                                                                                    1. Study themes like farming and nature, no traditional subjects and tests abolished
                                                                                                      1. Teaching emphasised discovery, play and group work
                                                                                                        1. Heavily influenced by those who wished to use schools as miniature copies of socialist society
                                                                                                        2. Youth groups and informal education
                                                                                                          1. Octobrists: aged 5-9, simple nursery rhymes and games played
                                                                                                            1. Pioneers
                                                                                                              1. aged 10-12 had to undergo an initiation ceremony
                                                                                                                1. Had to promise to love their country and follow Lenin's teachings
                                                                                                                  1. Had to wear a uniform
                                                                                                                    1. Encouraged good behaviour in schools and also provided sports, drama and leisure activities which gave it more appeal
                                                                                                                    2. Komsomol
                                                                                                                      1. Aged 14-28, essential if you wanted to be in the communist party
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