Changes in Surgery (1845-1945)

Niamh MacElvogue
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Changes in surgery

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Niamh MacElvogue
Created by Niamh MacElvogue over 5 years ago
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Changes in Surgery (1845-1945)
1 Anaesthetics
1.1 Ether
1.1.1 Worked because patient felt no pain
1.1.2 American dentist called William Moston
1.1.3 Put patients to sleep for a short time
1.1.4 However: It irritated eyes and caused coughing and vomiting
1.1.5 1846
1.2 Chloroform
1.2.1 1847
1.2.2 James Simpson, Scottish doctor
1.2.3 Worked but fear of long term side effects
1.2.4 Some believed that it was unnatural to ease women's labour pains
1.2.5 Hannah Greener died after being given chloroform which heightened controversy
1.2.5.1 1848
1.2.6 1857
1.2.6.1 Final breakthrough
1.2.6.2 Queen Victoria used chloroform in the birth of her 8th baby
1.2.6.3 Became common as backed by the Queen
1.3 Pain was an obstacle as it could put people off having life saving operations
2 Antiseptic Surgery (fighting germs)
2.1 Carbolic Acid - Joseph Lister
2.1.1 Decided to use carbolic acid after reading Pasteur's report
2.1.2 He wanted to find a way to kill germs rather than just preventing them
2.1.2.1 Made the connection that germs were coming from doctors' hands
2.1.3 Used it to spray anything that might come into contact with the wound
2.1.4 Problems
2.1.4.1 Cracked surgeon's skin and irritated
2.1.4.2 Made everything smell
2.1.4.3 For people who still believed that speed was the key, it slowed them down too much
2.1.4.4 It was expensive
2.1.4.5 Doctors didn't like being told what to do
2.1.4.6 It didn't work as effectively for some surgeons because they weren't as systematic
2.1.5 1867 the English surgeon began to develop his antiseptic
2.1.6 went on to use sterilised tools
3 Aseptic Surgery (preventative)
3.1 Germ theory - 1861, Pasteur's recommendations
3.1.1 Have clean hands
3.1.2 Have clean instruments (rapidly heated - sterilised)
3.1.3 Use only lint bandages and sponge previously heated to 130-150 degrees
3.2 From 1887, all interments were steam sterilised
3.3 German surgeons developed techniques to keep the germs away
3.3.1 These techniques became common in the operating theatre
3.4 1889 - Halstead introduced latex gloves after problems with sore hands due to carbolic acid
3.4.1 Protected patient as well as surgeon
3.4.2 Also introduced caps, masks and gowns to surgery

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