Britain alone

Matthew T
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A mind map summarising all the key details of Britain's resistance to German attack for EdExcel GCSE History A Unit 3: Modern World Source Enquiry - War and the transformation of British society 1931-51.

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Matthew T
Created by Matthew T over 5 years ago
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Britain alone
1 The defeat of France
1.1 Sep 1939-Apr 1940: little progress
1.2 Known as Phoney War or Sitzkrieg
1.3 13 May 1940 - attack on Low Countries (great success)
1.4 Maginot Line strongly defended but Germans broke through Ardennes
1.5 Paris captured + Vichy France set up under Petain by late 1940
2 Dunkirk evacuation May-Jun 1940
2.1 British Expeditionary Force (BEF) retreated to Dunkirk
2.2 Hitler ordered Panzers to stop advancing
2.3 198,000 British, 140,000 French + Belgian troops saved
2.4 Positive results
2.4.1 RAF had defeated Luftwaffe
2.4.2 Many troops saved
2.4.3 Dunkirk spirit - morale high due to little boats (war effort)
2.5 Negative results
2.5.1 300,000 troops left behind
2.5.2 Equipment abandoned
2.5.3 France surrendered
3 Favourable circumstances
3.1 Churchill's election
3.1.1 More urgency - "blood, toil, tears and sweat"
3.1.2 Morale-raising speeches
3.1.3 "Bulldog" approach captivated Britain
3.2 Hitler's failures
3.2.1 Not using Panzers at Dunkirk
3.2.2 Implementation of Operation Barbarossa (invasion of Soviet Union) 1941
3.3 Roosevelt's assistance
3.3.1 Paved way for American entry
3.3.2 Lend Lease provided vital supplies
4 Battle of Britain
4.1 Hitler needed to destroy RAF
4.2 Shipping + ports attacked
4.3 Radar stations + airfields followed
4.4 Goering ordered attack on London
4.5 Successes of the RAF
4.5.1 Mistake of diversion - allowed RAF time to recuperate
4.5.2 German bombers weak
4.5.3 Spitfire + Hurricane superior
4.5.4 Radar warning system provided protection
5 Blitz
5.1 Blitzkrieg - lightning war
5.2 Hoped to force surrender + gain revenge
5.3 London bombed 7 Sep-2 Nov 1940 every night
5.4 House of Commons + Buckingham Palace damaged but King George VI provided morale
5.5 Most savage raid Coventry (military centre) - cathedral destroyed but city carried on
5.6 Baedeker raids on picturesque towns (Canterbury, Norwich etc.)
5.7 V1s and V2s used at end of war - dangerous but little damage caused
6 Precautions
6.1 Air raid
6.1.1 Anderson shelters 1939 in gardens
6.1.2 Morrison shelters 1941 in houses
6.1.3 Underground stations used after pressure
6.1.4 Blackouts - no lights, leading to road accidents (1500/month)
6.2 Evacuation
6.2.1 Children, mothers + teachers evacuated from cities
6.2.2 Attempt to protect from bombs + gas attacks
6.2.3 Parents reluctant to separate
6.2.4 Chosen by families in country
6.2.5 Began 1939 but Phoney War saw return
6.2.6 Successes
6.2.6.1 Standard of living improved
6.2.6.2 Safer
6.2.6.3 Encouraged social reform
6.2.6.4 Mothers able to help war effort
6.2.7 Failures
6.2.7.1 Returns anyway
6.2.7.2 Poor administration
6.2.7.3 Some children treated badly
6.2.7.4 Country families shocked

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