Created by 003427 about 6 years ago
The Enabling Act-Allowed Hitler to create new laws without the interference of the Reichstag. This lasted for a period of four years and started in 1933.
The Reichstag fire- Occurred in 1933. Caused by a Dutch communist. He was later executed. Hitler used this an excuse to show how the Communists were bad.
Totaltarian state- A state where the government has complete control over its citizens' life.
Night of the Long Knives- 1934. Hitler made the SS execute the leaders of the SA (including Ernst Rohm) as the army were worried that the SA were trying to take over. Hitler also did this as he saw Rohm and others in the Nazi party to be a threat to himself. 1,000 Nazi's were killed.
The Death of Hindenburg- Hindenburg died a few weeks after the Night of the Long Knives. Hitler decided that the country no longer needed a President and appointed himself 'Fuhrer'.
The Oath- The German army took an oath of allegiance to Hitler to always serve and obey him.
Tear up the Treaty- After the mock of Germany that the Treaty of Versailles did, Hitler wanted to tear it up and go against it. He wanted to show that Germany was great and that they could never be beaten.
Unite all German speaking people- Hitler wanted to bring all German speaking people together, in order to have a Master race.
How was Hitler able to consolidate his power in Germany?
What were Hitler's main aims?
Rearmament- Hitler wanted to re-militarize areas that Germany was banned from doing so in the Treaty. These were areas such as the Ruhr and the Rhineland.
Libensraum- Hitler wanted to expand his German empire. Libensraum (Living space) was the way to do so.
Opposition to Nazi rule.
Church- Nazi tried to maintain a good relationship with the church. Keen to work with the Nazis at first (family values and immorality). Concordat signed in 1933. Hitler didn't keep his side of the concordat. Nazism was denounced by the pope. Pope sent a letter saying that Nazism was immoral and wrong and then Hitler sent nuns and monks to concentration camps.
Army- Some generals were highly suspicious of the Nazi's. (General Ludwig Beck). Hitler sacked many.
Youth Groups- Some youths objected the restrictions set upon them in the Hitler Youth. Some youth groups were only interested in dancing to English and American songs and listening to jazz. They heard anti-Nazi ideas of the radios. Leaflets were handed out, etc.
Upper class- Originally approved of Nazism. They grew tired of Nazi brutality and feared that Hitlers foreign policy may lead to the ruin of Germany.
During the war- White Rose movement (Hans and Sophie Scholl).Navajos Gang.Edelweiss Pirates.Beck-Goerdeler Group.
Were most people better off under Nazi rule?
Re-armament and Public work programmes- Re arming led to an increase work to produce iron and steel for making weapons. People also gained employment by joining the German army. The Nazis spent money on public works e.g. Autobahns (motorways). They also gave money to private firms to build more housing, This reduced unemployment,
Working conditions- Although Trade unions were taken away, the Government set up German Labour fronts e.g. 'The Beauty of Labour' and 'Strength Through Joy'.
How successful were Nazi policies towards women and the family?
Education- History showed the success of the Nazis. Biology explained Nazi beliefs. Race studies and Ideology were new subjects. Boys and Girls had different educations. Boys were taught more military training and girls were taught more domestic science and other subjects that were suitable for motherhood.
The role of women- Women were expected to stay at home as the child-bearers and as supporters of their husbands. They weren't seen as equal. Women were sacked in order to make more room for stronger, male workers and they were never allowed to join the armed forces. Women were supposed to be encouraged to have as many children as possible. Hitler discouraged contraception due to the falling birth rate in Germany and women with a certain number of children were awarded mother crosses. Motherhood and family life was prominent in Nazi propaganda. Women were pressured into upholding traditions.
Women and Family