Basal Ganglia

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Note by dwain.med, updated more than 1 year ago
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Post-graduate Anatomy Note on Basal Ganglia, created by dwain.med on 07/14/2013.

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Who: The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei of varied origin in the brains of vertebrates that act as a cohesive functional unit. Where: They are situated at the base of theforebrain and are strongly connected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and other brain areas. What: The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions, including voluntary motor control, procedural learning relating to routine behaviors or "habits" such as bruxism, eye movements, and cognitive,[1] emotional functions.[2] Currently popular theories implicate the basal ganglia primarily in action selection, that is, the decision of which of several possible behaviors to execute at a given time.[1][3] Experimental studies show that the basal ganglia exert an inhibitory influence on a number of motor systems, and that a release of this inhibition permits a motor system to become active. The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions.[2][4]The main components of the basal ganglia are the striatum (caudate nucleus andputamen), the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, the nucleus accumbens, and thesubthalamic nucleus.[5] The largest component, the striatum, receives input from many brain areas but sends output only to other components of the basal ganglia. The pallidum receives input from the striatum, and sends inhibitory output to a number of motor-related areas. The substantia nigra is the source of the striatal input of the neurotransmitterdopamine, which plays an important role in basal ganglia function. The subthalamic nucleus receives input mainly from the striatum and cerebral cortex, and projects to the globus pallidus. Each of these areas has a complex internal anatomical and neurochemical organization.The basal ganglia play a central role in a number of neurological conditions, including several movement disorders. The most notable are Parkinson's disease, which involves degeneration of the dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta, andHuntington's disease, which primarily involves damage to the striatum.[1][5] Basal ganglia dysfunction is also implicated in some other disorders of behavior control such as Tourette syndrome, hemiballismus, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and Wilson's disease.The basal ganglia have a limbic sector whose components are assigned distinct names: the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, andventral tegmental area. There is considerable evidence that this limbic part plays a central role in reward learning, particularly a pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens that uses the neurotransmitter dopamine. A number of highly addictive drugs, including cocaine, amphetamine, and nicotine, are thought to work by increasing the efficacy of this dopamine signal. There is also evidence implicating overactivity of the VTA dopaminergic projection in schizophrenia.[6]

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