Social Learning Theory - Observation (a child seeing their dad hit their mum), vicarious reinforcement (they don't see them being punished for the act, perhaps the violence they inflict actually has a positive affect on the dad), mental representation (violence = positive consequences), Classical conditioning (child associates violence with positive consequence) self - efficacy (hit someone at school, realise they there are no negative consequences and that they can so it) Bandura - Angered children by telling them that they couldn't play with a certain toy because it was for the other children. They then either showed the children and adult hitting and abusing a " bobo doll" or ignoring it/treating it well. When the children went into interact with the bobo doll, those who had witnessed the violent behaviour treated the bobo doll with anger. x - only on children, ver impressionable and therefore cannpo tbe generalised to adultsx - they purposefully made them angry and upsetx - lacks mundane realism
Deindividuation - Altered State of Consciousness (sensory overload, drink and drugs), diffusion of responsibility (large group size), anonymity (masks, uniforms) this leads to a lowering of private self evaluation because we have lowered lowered our cognitive restraintsZimbardo's Stamford Prison study - Male, college students were split into two random groups, wither guards or prisoners. Both wore uniforms, and it was set in an underground make shift prison (altered state of consiousness). AS the experiment continued, both grousp showed increasing signs of being deinividuated, with the guards making the prisoners perform degrading and humiliating tasks, a couple of times the guards 'fought back', but they mainly they just followed the orders of the guards. Eventually christine maslack was the whistle blowerx - only male college students x - may be the effects of instituitionalisation, not just deindividuationx - guards may be affected by social desirability bias (acting how they have seen "guards" act before in media portrayals)
Instituitionalised Aggression - Status and power (abu ghraib - the soldiers were just on night duty, and they therefore had a rare amount of power over the prisoners), revenge and retaliation (may have felt that the prisoners represented those who had carried out the 9/11 bombing attacks, and therefore felt as though they were getting justice for what they had done), deindividuation (the guards all wore uniforms, it was at night, language barrier and they were in a large group)- Stamford Prison Experiment - Male, college students were split into two random groups, wither guards or prisoners. Both wore uniforms, and it was set in an underground make shift prison (altered state of consciousness). AS the experiment continued, both groups showed increasing signs of being deinividuated, with the guards making the prisoners perform degrading and humiliating tasks, a couple of times the guards 'fought back', but they mainly they just followed the orders of the guards. Eventually Christine Maslach was the whistle blowerx - only male college students x - may be the effects of instituitionalisation, not just deindividuation x - guards may be affected by social desirability bias (acting how they have seen "guards" act before in media portrayals)
Genetics - Sandburg found the XYY gene, Court- Brown looked at hospitalised patients, and found that those with the XYY gene were more likely to be in there because of violent crimes, Cairns bred mice to become aggressive in middle age (a trait that was then passed on to their children showing the role of genetics), this was supported by Nelson who thought that animal studies were generalisable to humans because there isn;t that big of a difference. Theilgaard gave apperception tests to XY, XXY and XYY people, she found that those with the XYY gene were more likely to find violent or aggressive images in the ink blotsSupported by Rutter and his twin studies who found that a concordance rate for committing aggressive crimes for DZ times was 13-22% whereas for MZ twins it was 26-51% x - doesn't exclude the possibility of nurture, they were brought up in the same environmentx - not 100% concordance rateAdoption studies found that boys with criminal convictions were more likely to have bioloigcal parents with criminal convictionsx - doesn't explain aggressive behaviour in girls - cannot be generalised
Neural and Hormonal - reciprocal model suggests that testosterone is an effect and not a cause of dominance (study of 2100 ex RAF pilots over a ten year period found that their testosterone levels were lower when married and higher when divorced) and the basal model suggests that testosterone increases the levels of dominance this is supported by Macur and Booth's research which found that a high level of importance was associated with being either single or divorced and the number of arrests for violent crimes and weapon use. Testosterone is a angrogenous gene, and Nelson found that male and female prisoners with more testosterone in the blood stream acted more aggressively. Wagner found that castrated mice had few incidences of biting attacks, but when given injections of testosterone they became more aggressiveRole of serotonin - Leonardo found that the monkeys with the highest amounts of serotonin were more likely to get injured or die young.Role of brain structure - lesioning different parts of a cats hypothalamus led to either predatory or vicious attacks. The pre frontal cortex was also though to be a very important in aggressive behaviour, Phineus Gage had a tamping iron forced through the skull, which came into contact with his pre frontal cortex - this led to a more aggressive personality
Evolutionary explanation of infidelity and jealousy - men want status and to be high in the hierarchy because this means that women will be more attracted to them (often because they will have more resources - sex for meat hypothesis) therefore l.s males are happy to take part in high risk strategies in order to go higher up the hierarchy, for example, getting into fights with other males. This is shown in Daly and Wilson's study in Detroit in 1972, whereby they found that the majority of who were the victims and perpetrators were low status males. There is no evolutionary advantage to women showing overt aggression, so instead they use more covert methods such as gossiping and trying to reduce a females attractiveness to other males in that way. Griscivious - asked students a hypothetical situation, what would they do if someone of the same sex came over and poured a drink on them. the majority of men would retort with some kind of physical violence, compared to just 1/4 of women, who say they would walk awayMen are more likely to become aggressive when there is a threat of sexual infidelity, women are more likely to become aggressive when it's emotional infidelity. Men are more likely to become aggressive in order to prevent infidelity (e.g. domestic violence)x - culture bias in D + W because just one year in Detroit, doesn't represent all cultures and maybe not even representative of modern society 4 years onx G is not reliable because it's hypothetical, and self report, could be subject to social desirability bias.
Evolutionary explanation, sport and warfare - group display is used as a form of aggression 1) safety in numbers 2) threatening. Maxwell and Viscek - rugby players were given a self report questionnaire, and those who rated highly on "professionalism" also placed greater importance on winning, and were more likely to use unsanctioned aggression - cheating is adaptive.x - self report questionnairex - only in rugby, where a certain level of violence is expected - lacks mundane realismCialdini - studied "basking in reflected glory" - found that univeristy students were more likely to use inclusive pronouns and wear the sports team's colours more when they won - victory in sport brings greater power and status.x - only university students - doesn't really take agression into account Chagnon - studied the Yanomomo tribe that frequently overtook other villages in order to increase the size of their village. Found that those who were more successful in battle were more likely to have wives, young men who hadn't killed were rarely married.x - cultural bias