19 Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

Mane Sahakian
Note by Mane Sahakian, updated more than 1 year ago
Mane Sahakian
Created by Mane Sahakian almost 6 years ago
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Bachelor Bioorganic Chemistry Note on 19 Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, created by Mane Sahakian on 12/09/2015.

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19.2 Amino Acids and The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation: Isoelectric Points In acid solution an amino acid is protonated, and exist primarily as a cation.In basic solution an amino acid is deprotonated, and exist primarily as an anion.In between these two the amino acid is perfectly balances between anionic and cationic forms --> Exist as neutral twitter ionThis pH (between anionic and cationic) is called the amino acid's Isolectrical point, pI. The isoelectrical point of an amino acid depends on its structure:- Neutral amino acids, have pI near neutrality- Acidic amino acids have pI at lower pH so that the extra acidic group doesn't get deprotonated- Basic amino acids have pI at higher pH so that the extra base group doesn't get protonatedProteins also have isolectrical points- with the technique "electrophoresis", a mixture of proteins can be separated into their pure constituents.

19.1 Structure of Amino Acids Zwitterion: A molecule that has an protonated amino group and a deprotonated carboxyl groupAmino Acids are amphiprotic; they can react either as acids or as bases- In aqueous acid solution, an amino acid zwitterion is a base that accepts a proton to yields a cation- In aqueous base solution, an amino acid zwitterion is an acid that loses a proton to yields an anionAll 20 amino acid commonly found in proteins are alpha-amino acidsAlpha-amino acid: The amino acid is a substituent on the alpha-carbonAnd 19 of them are primary amines, which means only the side chain on the alpha-carbon is the only difference between the 19 amino acidsThe 20th one is "Proline" and is a secondary amine, its nitrogen and carbon atoms are part of a ring.The 20 common amino acids can be classified as; neutral, acidic or basic - depending on the structure og their side chains.- An extra amino group would make the amino acid basic.- An extra carboxyl group would make the amino acid, acidic.

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