MACROFUNCTIONS TO EXPRESS COMMONEST COMMUNICATIVE INTENTIONS

Patricia Garrido Camacho
Note by Patricia Garrido Camacho, updated more than 1 year ago
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Note on MACROFUNCTIONS TO EXPRESS COMMONEST COMMUNICATIVE INTENTIONS, created by Patricia Garrido Camacho on 02/09/2016.
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MACROFUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE TO EXPRESS THE COMMONEST COMMUNICATIVE INTENTIONS:ESTABLISHING RELATIONSHIPSASKING AND GIVING INFORMATION ABOUT THINGS PEOPLE AND ACTIONSEXPRESSING INTELLECTUAL AND EMOTIONAL ATTITUDES

HALIDAY 1973: language instrument of social interaction with a clear communicative purpose. COMMUNICATION IS EXCHANGE AND NEGOTIATION OF INFORMATIONS BETWEEN AT LEAST TWO SPEAKERS THROUGH THE USE OF VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL SYMBOLS, ORAL AND WRITTEN, AND PRODUCTION AND COMPREHENSION PROCESSES. LANGUAGE IS AN INSTRUMENT OF SOCIAL INTERACTION WITH A CLEAR COMMUNICATIVE PURPOSELANGUAGE FUNCTION describes what we can do with the language in the process of effective communication. LARSEN AND FREEMAN 91: people learn to communicate by communicating, learners must actively work and practice on communication to develop communication skills and develop communicative competence. CHOMSKY 1965 competence/performance. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax«Competence» is one of the most controversial terms in the fi eld of general and applied linguistics. Its introduction to linguistic discourse has been generally associated with Chomsky On Chomsky's view, the language faculty contains innate knowledge of various linguistic rules, constraints and principles; this innate knowledge constitutes the ‘initial state’ of the language faculty. In interaction with one's experiences of language during childhood — that is, with one's exposure to what Chomsky calls the ‘primary linguistic data’ or ‘pld’ (see §2.1) — it gives rise to a new body of linguistic knowledge, namely, knowledge of a specific language (like Chinese or English). This ‘attained’ or ‘final’ state of the language faculty constitutes one's ‘linguistic competence’ and includes knowledge of the grammar of one's language. This knowledge, according to Chomsky, is essential to our ability to speak and understand a language (although, of course, it is not sufficient for this ability: much additional knowledge is brought to bear in ‘linguistic performance,’ that is, actual language use)What Chomsky is talking about when using the term competence is an ideal knowledge of language, an abstract linguistic capacity which is innate, but will be developed through exposure, competence is implicit tacit knowledge. Performance would be the actual realizations of that competence.Dell HYMES 1971: in reaction to Chomsky, he was concerned that Chomsky left out that one of our knowledges of language is that we know how to uese it appropiately, he particularly objected to the absecen of sociocultural factors in Chomsky´s model. he coignes the term communicative competence: what a speaker needs to know about how a language is used in particular situations for effective communication; communicative form and function in integral relation to each other. Later Chomsky reformulated his concept of competence 1980 to include a grammatical competence and a pragmatic competenceA communicative syllabus will set a a variety of communicative activities that will help learner attain abilities at the end of the course of the stage. Canale and Swain (1980) defined communicative competence in terms of three components grammatical competence: words and rules sociolinguistic competence: appropriateness, knowledge of the rules of language use strategic competence: appropriate use of communication strategies, linking form to function Canale refined the model by adding discourse competence: cohesion and coherenceCanale and Swain (1980) and Canale (1983) understood communicative competence as a synthesis of an underlying system of knowledge and skill needed for communication. In their concept of communicative competence, knowledge refers to the (conscious or unconscious) knowledge of an individual about language and about other aspects of language use. According to them, there are three types of knowledge: knowledge of underlying grammatical principles, knowledge of how to use language in a social context in order to fulfi l communicative functions and knowledge of how to combine utterances and communicative functions with respect to discourse principles. In addition, their concept of skill refers to how an individual can use the knowledge in actual communication. According to Canale (1983), skill requires a further distinction between underlying capacity and its manifestation in real communication, that is to say, in performanceCANALE 1983 sociolinguistic competence, consisting of 2 subcomponents: socio-cultural rules and discourse rules. Strategic competence: verbal and non-verbal communication strategies for solving problems in communicationWilkins Notional Syllabus 1976. Threshold Level. HALLIDAY 1973: language instrument of social interaction with a clear communicative purpose.CEFR 2001 (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages learnings, teaching and assessment) major objective is to improve the competence of European citizens and produce transparency in language qualification. It distinguishes between GENERAL COMPETENCES of an INDIVIDUAL:-KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD-KNOW-HOW AND SKILLS-EXISTENCIAL COMPETENCEand COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE:-LINGUISTIC COMPETENCES: GRAMMATICAL PHONOLOGICAL LEXICAL ORTHOGRAPHIC ORTHOEPIC -SOCIOLINGUISTIC COMPETENCES: knowledege and skills to deal with social dimension of language use and sociocultural competence-PRAGMATIC COMPETENCES functional use of linguistic resources discourse cohesion, coherence, identification of text types, irony, parody Language activities : production, reception, mediation. Performance of communicative tasks that must be developed in the same way as competencesEmphasis on fluency rather than on accuracy. For CANALE AND SWAIN FLUENCY: ability to generate and communicate ideas intelligibly and with relative easeCOMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE must involve the integrated development of 5 skills both productive and receptive: reading, aural, writing, speaking, interacting (writting and speaking interaction, mediation)All of use have developed our competence in our own native language, although the written proficiency is acquired later. The acquisition of communicative competence in L2 is based in the competence we already have in L1. Development of 2 systems that interact, all knowledge and experience of language interralate and interact: plurilinguism. Competence is the ability to use all aspects of verbal and non-verbal language in a variety of contexts. Notion of function can be traced back to Jakobson´s 1960 Communication model with 6 functions, each related to an element in the communication scheme:- referential: context-emotive: speaker- conative: addresser- phatic: channel, to enter and to stay in communication-poetic: message-Metalingual: codeFunctions_ purposes for which individuals communicate: establishing ineraction, asking and giving information, describing, narratingHALLIDAY 1985 An Introduction to Functional Grammar Description of how the structures in English relate to the variables of social context in which language is functioning, how grammatical forma are structured to achieve purposes on a variety of social contexts, thus linking the fields of linguistics, semantics and pragmatics.Classic work on negotiation of meaning: ELLIS 1985For HALLIDAY there are 3 MACROFUNCTIONS which in combination provide the basic functions:-IDEATIONAL: represent phenomena world, by means of tense, logical meanings-INTERPERSONAL: modality, mood, negotiation-TEXTUAL: lexicogrammatical level7 basic functions: INFORMATIVE: affirmative, negative statemates INSTRUMENTAL: express desires and needs REGULATORY: rules, instructions, orders, suggestions INTERACTIONAL: greeting, leave taking, thanking, good wishes... PERSONAL: talk about oneself HEURISTIC: ask questions IMAGINATIVE: suppose, hypothesize LARSEN AND FREEMAN 91: people learn to communicate by communicating, learners must actively work and practice on communication to develop communication skills and develop communicative competence. Notion of macrofunction closely related to communicative competence and perfomance. ELLIS 1985 defines PROFICIENCY as learner´s knowledge of target language, the sumn of linguistic and comunicative competencelanguage FUNCTIONS are related to semantic NOTIONSWILKINS NOTIONAL SYLLABUS 1976. THRESHOLD LEVELThe term "notional syllabus" embraces any strategy of language teaching that derives the content of learning from an initial analysis of the learner's need to express three different kinds of meaningexplain language on terms of what people do with itmajor communicative NOTIONS: EXPRESSION OF TIME, DURATION, FREQUENCFUNCTIONS: the social purpose of the utterance, USE OF LANGUAGE TO ACHIEVE A PURPOSE

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