Created by lmg719 over 6 years ago
All living things are made up of cells. Different types of cells have different structures and different functions.
Animal cells and plant cells have features in common, such as: a nucleus cytoplasm cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes.
Plant and algal cells also have cell wall chloroplasts permanent vacuole.
Dissolved substances pass into and out of cells by diffusion.
Nucleus - Contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cellCytoplasm - Most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymesCell membrane - Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cellMitochondria - Most energy is released by respiration hereRibosomes - Protein synthesis happens here
Animal and plant cells Function of cells which animal and plant cells have in common
Plant cells also have extra parts: Extra parts of plant cells
Cell wall - Strengthens the cellChloroplasts - Contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis Permanent vacuole - Filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid
YeastYeast is a single-celled organism. Like bacterial cells, yeast cells have cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall. But unlike bacterial cells, yeast cells have a nucleus.
Bacterial cellsA bacterium is a single-celled organism. A bacterial cell has a different structure to an animal or plant cell. It has cytoplasm, a membrane and a surrounding cell wall, but the genetic material in a bacterial cell is not in a distinct nucleus but the DNA that would be held in the nucleus is floating around in the cell itself
Structure of a salmonella bacterium cell
Cell Function Adaption
Absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
Packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped, closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.
Root Hair Cell
Absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil
Long 'finger-like' process with very thin wall, which gives a large surface area.
Cell Function Adaption
Fertilises an egg cell - female gamete
Contains haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells.
The head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.
Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily. Shape increases the surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently. No nucleus, so the whole cell is full of haemoglobin.
Bacterial Cells and Yeast