Note by , created almost 6 years ago

8 History (Islam) Note on Islam, created by Chels1964 on 05/06/2013.

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Created by Chels1964 almost 6 years ago
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Page 1

The Story Of Mohammed: Mohammed’s Birth 570 AD In Mecca (A town in the Arabian Desert Working as a trader with his uncle With his uncle he learnt to drive camels across trading routes Grew up to become a respectful trader Was called Al Amin which means honest and trustworthy

Mohammed’s Marriage When he was 25 he worked for a rich widow called Khadijah She was so impressed, asked him to marry her. God speaking to him in the desert In a cave on Mount Hira A voice spoke to him and said “There is only one go, Allah, and you (Mohammed) are his prophet. Mohammed preaching to the idol worshippers As he preached equality and justice to all, he gained followers among the poor and slaves. His own family and friends supported him.

Mohammed’s escape to Yathrib When his wife died people began to act against him One of his wealthy uncles gave orders for Mohammed to be captured. The priests and city leaders were determined to kill him. One night he secretly left Mecca and tried to escape 300 km to Yathrib Here the Moslems welcomed him. Mohamed is believed and conquers Arabia In 630 AD he and an army from Medina fort a war against Mecca. Mecca surrendered and there was little fighting Soon accepted as the prophet.

Important Dates & Places For Mohammed: -570 AD - Birth in Mecca -576 - His Parents Died -610 AD- Spent Time alone in cave In Mountains -In 622 - Many Muslims began to move away from Mecca to Medina.    - 622 AD is now the beginning of Muslim calendar as It marks   the date of the move to  Medina called Hijira   -In 624 the Muslims were ambushed by the Meccans but the Muslims won and this is called the Battle of Badr. Fighting continued over the years In 630 the Muslims eventually won and Mohammed took his followers back to Mecca in Triumph. 632 - Mohammed became ill and died. In 23 years he had started a whole new religion.

The Rightly Guided Caliphs After Mohammed died, the Muslims needed a leader. It was not clear who should take over the Muslims as a leader. A group of Mohammed's closet friends chose Abu Bakr to be their new leader The Muslims gave him the title of Caliph Abu Bakr was now the ruler of the new Muslim territories and defender of the Islamic religion. Was followed and helped by three other caliphs - Umar, Uthman and Ali.

Government The government is firstly divided into departments each run by an official.  People who are Muslims do not have to pay certain taxes.  All people were judged by the same Islamic laws. Local Government provided roads, bridges and irrigations systems. Well- trained soldiers protected Islamic lands and people. Money donated to charity was used to provide services such as fresh water for everyone.

The Five Pillars of Islam:  The Shahada: The Statement of Faith. 'There is one god, Mohammed is his prophet.' By Repeating this, followers affirm their belief for god.   The Salat: A fixed form of prayer. Carried out 5 times a day.   The Zakat: Practice of giving a fixed proportion of ones  income every year to help sick and poor.   The Sawn: A period of fasting from sunrise to dusk during the 9th month of the calendar.   The Hajj: The requirement to make a hajj at least once in their lifetime.

Structure: Slaves:   Slaves were non-muslims Bought at slave markets Captured in conquered areas Ordinary People: These were craftsmen, soldiers and farmers. Some were wealthy while others were poor. Upper Classes: These were officials, leader’s advisers, generals of armies, and wealthy merchants or traders.   Caliph: The caliphs were rulers

Oasis: A small Area in the desert watered springs and wells. Nomad: A Member of group that has no fixed home and moves from place to place. Tribe: Any system of social organization made up of villager, bands, or other groups with a common ancestry, language, culture, and name Idol: An image used as an object of worship. Bazaar: An open-air market with shops and goods for sale.

Pilgrimage: A journey to a sacred place or shrine. Koran: The sacred book of Islam. Monotheism: The belief that there is only one god. Islam: A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed. The Submission to God. Muslim: A believer in Islam. Mosque: A place of Muslim worship.

Sunna: Customary produces of living, specifically the ways and customs of Mohammed.   Caliph:  The civil and religious ruler of a Muslim state.   Council: An assembly called to help determine the next Muslim Caliph.   Shiite:  One who follows the ways and customs of Mohammed, specifically those who accept the authority was passed down consensus of the Muslim community.   Sunni: From the Arabic 'party'; one who believes that authority passed from the prophet Mohammed to his lineal descedants.   Mohammed: Founder of Islam, prohpet of God.   Allah: Arabic word for god.   Muezzin: One that calls Muslim worshipers to prayer.

Kaaba: Square building in Mecca believed by Muslims to be in the house Ibrahim erected for god and focus of Muslim worship.   Hegira: Mohammed's emigration with his follows from Mecca to Medina in 622.   Monotheistic: Believing that there is only one god. Polytheistic: Worshipping or believing in more than one god.  Revelations: The making known of a secret or the unknown. Hijira: The Hijra (هِجْرَة) is the migration of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers to the city of Medina in 622

The Story of Mohammed