PHSI3011 10-1 Complex Systemic Homeoastasis

Michael Jardine
Quiz by Michael Jardine, updated more than 1 year ago
Michael Jardine
Created by Michael Jardine over 3 years ago
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PHSI3011 10-1 Complex Systemic Homeoastasis

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Glucose is a 6-Carbon ring that’s metabolisable as a “D-isomer”. It’s C6-H[x]-O[y]?
Answer
  • X = 12; Y = 6
  • X = 6; Y = 6
  • X = 6; Y = 12
  • X = 12; Y = 12

Question 2

Question
Glucose is a:
Answer
  • Monosaccharide
  • Polysaccharide
  • Monoglyceride
  • Polyglyceride

Question 3

Question
Glucose is consumed as starch and glycogen and broken down to glucose by [blank_start]__________[blank_end] [blank_start]__________[blank_end] [blank_start]__________[blank_end] for transport across the enterocytes.
Answer
  • Exocrine
  • Endocrine
  • Autocrine
  • Paracrine
  • Pancreatic
  • Hepatic
  • Leukocytic
  • Lymphatic
  • Glycosidases
  • Glycocytes
  • Glycosides
  • Glycogenases

Question 4

Question
How much of the postprandial glucose disposal is accounted for by skeletal muscle glucose uptake? (in humans)
Answer
  • ~70-80%
  • ~20-30%
  • ~50-70%
  • ~30-50%
  • ~80-90%
  • ~10-20%

Question 5

Question
Triglycerides (/“Triacylglycerols”) are complex lipids that are 3 Fatty Acids attached to a [blank_start]_______[blank_end] backbone.
Answer
  • 3 Carbon Glycerol
  • 3 Carbon Glycogen
  • 5 Carbon Glycerol
  • 5 Carbon Glycogen

Question 6

Question
Free Fatty Acids (“NEFA”: Non-Esterified Fatty Acids) are released from [blank_start]__________[blank_end] and circulate bound to [blank_start]__________[blank_end].
Answer
  • Adipocytes
  • Albumin

Question 7

Question
Triglycerides (/TriAcylGlycerols/TAGs) circulate in lipoproteins secreted from the Liver or Gut. Which type of lipoprotein is secreted from each of the two? Liver: [blank_start]__________[blank_end] Gut: [blank_start]__________[blank_end]
Answer
  • VLDL
  • LDL
  • HDL
  • Chylomicron
  • Chylomicron
  • VLDL
  • LDL
  • HDL

Question 8

Question
ADIPOSE-DERIVED Fatty Acids are taken up by which tissues?
Answer
  • Liver
  • Gut
  • Muscle
  • Liver and Gut
  • Liver and Muscle
  • Gut and Muscle
  • All of the above
  • None of the above
  • ALL tissues

Question 9

Question
Once dietary TriAcylGlycerols have been hydrolysed and transported across the enterocytes, they’re then esterified back into TriAcylGlycerols and packaged into:
Answer
  • Chylomicrons
  • VLDLs
  • LDLs
  • HDLs

Question 10

Question
Once adipose-derived Fatty Acids are taken up by the liver, they’re esterified into TriAcylGlycerols and packaged into:
Answer
  • Chylomicrons
  • VLDLs
  • LDLs
  • HDLs

Question 11

Question
Chylomicron-TG is metabolised at the tissue level by [blank_start]__________[blank_end], which hydrolyses CM-TG to release FA for tissue uptake.
Answer
  • LipoProtein Lipase (LPL)
  • Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDLs)
  • High-Density Lipoproteins (HDLs)
  • Very Low-Density Lipoproteins (VLDLs)

Question 12

Question
After hydrolysis of the Chylomicron-TG, the particle becomes smaller, forming CM-remnant. This remnant particle is taken up by the [blank_start]__________[blank_end] and the TG remaining in the particle can be repackaged into a [blank_start]__________[blank_end], thereby recycling the dietary FA.
Answer
  • Liver
  • Gut
  • Muscle
  • VLDL
  • HDL
  • LDL
  • LPL
  • VLPL
  • Chylomicron

Question 13

Question
Label all those bits.
Answer
  • Chylomicron
  • LDL
  • VLDL
  • LPL
  • HDL
  • VLPL
  • LPL
  • VLPL
  • LDL
  • VLDL
  • HDL
  • Chylomicron
  • Chylomicron remnant
  • VLDL remnant
  • LDL remnant
  • HDL remnant
  • VLPL remnant
  • LPL remnant
  • VLDL
  • LDL
  • LPL
  • VLPL
  • HDL
  • Chylomicron
  • Liver
  • Adipose
  • Muscle
  • Adipose
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Muscle
  • Adipose
  • Liver

Question 14

Question
Which two mostly carry TAGs (/TAs/TriAcylGlycerols/TriGlycerides)?
Answer
  • Chylomicron
  • VLDL
  • LDL
  • HDL

Question 15

Question
Which two carry mostly* Cholesterol? (not actually mostly, but more than TAGs)
Answer
  • LDL
  • HDL
  • VLDL
  • Chylomicron

Question 16

Question
Glucose uptake is limited by GLUT levels at the plasma membrane… …but can be overcome by an increase in levels of what?
Answer
  • HK2
  • HK1
  • SA1
  • SA2

Question 17

Question
The rate of fatty acid oxidation is controlled by the rate of FA entry into the mitochondria – this step is catalysed by what? (the activity of which is regulated by malonyl-CoA through ALLOSTERIC REGULATION)
Answer
  • CPT1
  • CPT2
  • HK1
  • HK2

Question 18

Question
The modification of proteins is a highly conserved process that regulates protein/enzyme activity. A diverse range of PTMs include: [blank_start]__________[blank_end]: Addition of a phosphate (from ATP or similar triphosphates) [blank_start]__________[blank_end]: Addition of acetate from acetyl-CoA [blank_start]__________[blank_end]: Addition of a glucose molecule [blank_start]__________[blank_end]: Include myristolyation (C14), palmitolyation (C16)
Answer
  • Phosphorylation
  • Acetylation
  • Glycosylation
  • Lipidation

Question 19

Question
Can Phosphorylation activate or inactivate an enzyme?
Answer
  • Activate
  • Inactivate
  • Neither
  • Either

Question 20

Question
True or false: The synthesis of new protein is another point of regulation. An example of this is Gluconeogenesis.
Answer
  • True
  • False
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