Chapter 4 - part 1: Psychophysics: Basic Concepts and Issues

Vincent Voltaire
Quiz by Vincent Voltaire, updated more than 1 year ago
Vincent Voltaire
Created by Vincent Voltaire over 1 year ago
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Psychology Quiz on Chapter 4 - part 1: Psychophysics: Basic Concepts and Issues, created by Vincent Voltaire on 02/09/2020.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Which of the following reflects a distinction between the process of sensation and the process of perception?
Answer
  • Sensation is not necessary for perception, but perception is necessary for sensation.
  • Sensation occurs at the level of the brain, while perception occurs at the level of the mind.
  • Sensation reflects the proximal stimulus, while perception reflects the distal stimulus.
  • Sensation occurs at the level of the sense organs, while perception occurs at the level of the brain.

Question 2

Question
Light has entered Jeff’s eye and has stimulated receptors there. Which of the following terms describes this process?
Answer
  • detection
  • perception
  • proximal stimulation
  • sensation

Question 3

Question
A neural signal from Mary’s taste bud has travelled to her cortex, and she experiences enjoyment of a sweet flavour. Which of the following terms describes this process?
Answer
  • sensation
  • distal stimulation
  • detection
  • perception

Question 4

Question
What is your absolute threshold?
Answer
  • the point at which you detect any portion of a stimulus
  • the point at which you detect a stimulus that registers on sensory memory
  • the point at which you detect any stimulus set point
  • the point at which you detect a stimulus about half of the time

Question 5

Question
Werner was having his hearing tested, and a number of the tones that were presented were so faint he was not able to detect them. What can you say about the faint sounds?
Answer
  • They are below Werner’s absolute threshold for sound.
  • They cannot create a just noticeable difference.
  • They cause weak action potentials.
  • They fall below Werner’s adaptation level for sound.

Question 6

Question
Juanita was drinking some warm punch, and she thought she could just detect a faint taste of nutmeg in the punch. When she took another sip, the taste wasn’t there. On the third sip, she could just make out the taste of nutmeg again. What could you say about the taste of nutmeg in this situation?
Answer
  • It falls just below her taste constancy level.
  • It produces a proximal rather than distal stimulus.
  • It is just at her absolute threshold for taste.
  • It produces a just noticeable difference.

Question 7

Question
Giovanni was watching the night sky on a clear evening in November. He noticed that sometimes when he looked directly overhead he could detect a very faint star. A few minutes later, it seemed that the star had disappeared and then it “appeared” again. How would you describe the light from the star in this case?
Answer
  • It produces a just noticeable difference.
  • It produces a distal stimulus.
  • It falls just below Giovanni’s level for perceptual invariance.
  • It is just at Giovanni’s absolute threshold for light.

Question 8

Question
Which of the following is being measured if a subject is presented with a series of light bulb pairs of different wattages and is asked whether the members of each pair differ in brightness?
Answer
  • subject’s visual acuity
  • subject’s absolute threshold for brightness
  • subject’s just noticeable difference for brightness
  • physical intensity difference between the two lights

Question 9

Question
If a 100 Hz tone had to be increased to 101 Hz for a subject to just notice the difference, what would you change a 1000 Hz tone to in order for that subject to notice the difference?
Answer
  • 1010 Hz
  • 1050 Hz
  • 1100 Hz
  • 1200 Hz

Question 10

Question
Evelyn turned up the thermostat from 68 degrees to 70 degrees; however, she doesn’t think it feels any warmer and she wants to turn it up even higher. Her roommate thinks that it is now too hot, and she wants to turn the thermostat back down. How does Evelyn’s just noticeable difference compare to her roommate’s?
Answer
  • Evelyn’s is smaller.
  • Evelyn’s is lower.
  • Evelyn’s is larger.
  • Evelyn’s is higher.

Question 11

Question
Raul is making potato soup. His roommate tastes it and tells Raul it is great, but Raul thinks it needs more salt. He adds just a little salt, but doesn’t think that he has added enough because he doesn’t detect a difference. However, his roommate tastes it again and tells Raul that the soup is now perfect, with just the right amount of salt. Which of the following is most accurate?
Answer
  • Raul’s roommate has a higher absolute threshold than does Raul.
  • Raul has more taste cells on the back of his tongue than does his roommate.
  • Raul is a nontaster.
  • Raul’s roommate can detect a smaller just noticeable difference than Raul can.

Question 12

Question
When Celeste was playing her stereo at 40 decibels and she turned it up to 42 decibels, she could notice that it was louder. If Celeste’s stereo were playing at 80 decibels, what should her just noticeable difference be?
Answer
  • 1 decibel, half as much as it was at 40 decibels
  • 2 decibels, the same as it was at 40 decibels
  • 3 decibels, 50 percent more than it was at 40 decibels
  • 4 decibels, twice as much as it was at 40 decibels

Question 13

Question
You have a lamp with a three-way light bulb. You can use the light at 50 watts, 100 watts, or 150 watts. When you change between settings, which of the following changes will be perceived as a larger increase in brightness?
Answer
  • from off to 50 watts
  • from 50 to 100 watts
  • from 100 to 150 watts
  • Each change will be perceived as an equivalent difference.

Question 14

Question
In the signal-detection method, what do we call it when a subject detects a stimulus when no stimulus is actually present?
Answer
  • hit
  • correct rejection
  • miss
  • false alarm

Question 15

Question
Which type of signal-detection error becomes more likely when someone is not expecting the stimulus?
Answer
  • correct rejection
  • miss
  • accurate hit
  • false alarm

Question 16

Question
In signal detection, which type of error is more likely if you are expecting the stimulus to occur?
Answer
  • false alarm
  • miss
  • correct rejection
  • noise hit

Question 17

Question
Jerry, a nuclear operator, must monitor 50 different gauges that keep track of various aspects of the nuclear reactor. Which of the following theories provides the most specific predictions for Jerry’s likelihood of detecting any changes or problems?
Answer
  • signal-detection
  • Fechner’s law
  • Pragnanz
  • Weber’s law

Question 18

Question
Joan was sitting talking with some friends when she suddenly left the room to check on her baby. She was sure she heard little Emily cry out, but when she checked, Emily was sleeping peacefully. What would you call Joan’s response based on signal-detection theory?
Answer
  • hit
  • false alarm
  • correct rejection
  • miss

Question 19

Question
Dalton was sitting in the hallway outside his chemistry class. Some students said they thought they could smell smoke, but Dalton didn’t smell anything. When they all checked the lab to see if there were any problems, everything was fine and nothing was burning. What would you call Dalton’s response based on signaldetection theory?
Answer
  • false alarm
  • low threshold
  • high threshold
  • correct rejection

Question 20

Question
Your criterion for “hearing” mysterious noises at night may change after a rash of burglaries in your neighbourhood. Which of the following best explains this change?
Answer
  • Fechner’s law
  • signal-detection theory
  • Weber’s law
  • sensory adaptation

Question 21

Question
What does “subliminal” mean?
Answer
  • deceptive
  • below threshold
  • barely perceptible
  • superimposed

Question 22

Question
Which of the following statements about subliminal perception is most accurate?
Answer
  • Subliminal perception is possible only if sensory adaptation has taken place.
  • Although subliminal perception was once dismissed by scientists as preposterous, recent evidence suggests it has some effects on behaviour.
  • Scientists have conclusively demonstrated that perception simply cannot take place without conscious awareness.
  • Recent research suggests that subliminal messages can be quite persuasive in convincing us to buy products we don’t want.

Question 23

Question
What have researchers typically found when they have attempted to demonstrate subliminal perception effects in the real world?
Answer
  • Such effects are substantial and a potential cause for public concern.
  • People are much more likely to be influenced by “positive” subliminal stimuli (e.g., selfhelp tapes) than “negative” ones (e.g., subliminal advertising).
  • People are much more likely to be influenced by “negative” subliminal stimuli than “positive” ones.
  • Such effects are so weak as to be of little, if any, practical importance.

Question 24

Question
What will eventually occur if you stare at an unchanging image for a long time?
Answer
  • You will experience sensory adaptation.
  • You will have a higher absolute threshold.
  • You will perceive a just noticeable difference.
  • You will experience sensory overload.

Question 25

Question
What is sensory adaptation?
Answer
  • a cause of false alarms in signal detection
  • increase in sensitivity after prolonged stimulation
  • decline in sensitivity after prolonged stimulation
  • weakening of a neurotransmitter

Question 26

Question
You enter a room and notice a distinctive new odour. After a bit of time, you no longer notice the odour. What phenomenon does this illustrate?
Answer
  • sensory adaptation
  • Pragnanz
  • progressive desensitization
  • false alarm

Question 27

Question
Yaniv has been working for the past two hours, and the hum of his laptop computer that he found so annoying when he started no longer bothers him. Which of the following processes is illustrated by the change in Yaniv’s sensitivity to the laptop noise?
Answer
  • adjusting just noticeable differences
  • sensory adaptation
  • perceptual assimilation
  • perceptual invariance

Question 28

Question
Sonja put on a new watch this morning and found it uncomfortable because it was so much heavier than her old watch. However, by noon, Sonja has forgotten that she is even wearing the watch. Which of the following processes is illustrated by the change in Sonja’s sensitivity to the pressure of the watch?
Answer
  • perceptual assimilation
  • signal detection
  • adjusting just noticeable differences
  • sensory adaptation

Question 29

Question
Which of the following CANNOT be explained by sensory adaptation?
Answer
  • feeling comfortable in a cold swimming pool after being in for a few minutes
  • getting used to the smell of the perfume you are wearing
  • getting used to the touch of your clothes on your skin
  • feeling no sensation in a foot that has lost circulation
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