PSYC3700 Exam 1

Amy Labossiere
Quiz by Amy Labossiere, updated more than 1 year ago
Amy Labossiere
Created by Amy Labossiere about 6 years ago
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PSYC3700 Exam 1

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
[blank_start]Locke[blank_end] argued that our source of certainty lies in our awareness of ourselves as sentient, together with pre-existing thoughts.
Answer
  • Locke

Question 2

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[blank_start]Descartes[blank_end] argued that we cannot know what is real until we know with some certainty what it is that we can know.
Answer
  • Descartes

Question 3

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[blank_start]Declarative[blank_end] knowledge is also known as [blank_start]offline/cold cognition[blank_end], which is knowing THAT something is the case.
Answer
  • Declarative
  • offline/cold cognition

Question 4

Question
[blank_start]Procedural[blank_end] knowledge is also known as [blank_start]online/hot cognition[blank_end], which is knowing HOW to do something.
Answer
  • Procedural
  • online/hot cognition

Question 5

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[blank_start]Priori[blank_end] knowledge, supported by Descartes, is the idea that ideas/principles are pre-installed in the human mind by a God.
Answer
  • Priori

Question 6

Question
____________ is to rationalism as ______________ is to empiricism
Answer
  • Locke; Descartes
  • Descartes; Locke

Question 7

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[blank_start]Rationalists[blank_end] are from the general to the specific
Answer
  • Rationalists

Question 8

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[blank_start]Empiricists[blank_end] are from the specific to the general
Answer
  • Empiricists

Question 9

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Darwin had a [blank_start]materialistic[blank_end] view of the mind
Answer
  • materialistic

Question 10

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[blank_start]Monophyletic origin[blank_end] can be defined as the descendent from a common evolutionary ancesor
Answer
  • Monophyletic origin

Question 11

Question
Nature is to __________, and nurture is to _____________.
Answer
  • Declarative Knowledge/Hot & Procedural Knowledge/Cold
  • Declarative Knowledge/Cold & Procedural Knowledge/Hot
  • Procedural Knowledge/Hot & Declarative/Cold
  • Procedural Knowledge/Cold & Declarative Knowledge/Hot

Question 12

Question
Evolution can be defined as [blank_start]descent with modification[blank_end]
Answer
  • descent with modification

Question 13

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Natural selection is a simple product of the concurrence of 3 requirements: [blank_start]variation, competition, and inheritence[blank_end]
Answer
  • variation, competition, and inheritence

Question 14

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[blank_start]Stablising selection[blank_end] is when species stop evolving and the average value of traits remains the same. Evolution occurs under [blank_start]driving or disruptive selection.[blank_end]
Answer
  • Stablising selection
  • driving or disruptive selection.

Question 15

Question
The European Peppered Moth discussed in class is an example of [blank_start]microevolution[blank_end] rather than [blank_start]speciation[blank_end].
Answer
  • microevolution
  • speciation

Question 16

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[blank_start]Mutations[blank_end] are the wellspring of evolutionary change.
Answer
  • Mutations

Question 17

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Natural selection can only operate on [blank_start]what exists[blank_end].
Answer
  • what exists

Question 18

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Natural selection modifying existing attributes to do different things
Answer
  • Adaptive radiation
  • Divergent evolution
  • Fitness
  • Gene pool

Question 19

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[blank_start]Analogy[blank_end] is when two structures (such as a bat wing and a dragon fly wing) where they are alike, but not the same and do not share the same evolutionary history.
Answer
  • Analogy

Question 20

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[blank_start]Homology[blank_end] is a set of structures that are shared by a common ancestor (such as the flipper or a walrus and the wing of a bat).
Answer
  • Homology

Question 21

Question
Why can no adaptation ever be perfect?
Answer
  • Environmental conditions are not fixed and change over time
  • Mutations are the wellspring of evolution
  • Natural selection can only act on what exists
  • All of the above
  • Environmental conditions are not fixed & natural selection can only act on what exists

Question 22

Question
[blank_start]Macroevolution or speciation[blank_end], is the emergence of a new species
Answer
  • Macroevolution or speciation

Question 23

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[blank_start]Allopatric speciation[blank_end] is speciation that follows from a population of animals being separated spatially.
Answer
  • Allopatric speciation

Question 24

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As was the case with Darwin's finches, appearance is helpful in identifying species, but it does not define the species: the adherence to this definition is [blank_start]biological species concept[blank_end]
Answer
  • biological species concept

Question 25

Question
[blank_start]Hybridization[blank_end] is when the population may re-join without speciation taking place and the 2 gene pools effectively merge
Answer
  • Hybridization
  • Allopatric speciation
  • Divergent evolution
  • Homoplasy

Question 26

Question
To understand the historical or evolutionary context in which specific characteristics arise or disappear, we need to be able to identify the taxa using a [blank_start]phylogeny[blank_end]
Answer
  • phylogeny

Question 27

Question
Skeletal material and behaviour are both [blank_start]phenotypes[blank_end]
Answer
  • phenotypes

Question 28

Question
A trait that is shared by 2 or more species, but is not present in the common ancestor because it has evolved more recently. This provides a more accurate picture of relatedness, called [blank_start]synapmorphies[blank_end]
Answer
  • synapmorphies
  • apomorphies
  • homoplasy
  • homology
  • analogy

Question 29

Question
[blank_start]Convergent evolution[blank_end] or [blank_start]homoplasy[blank_end] is when a trait can carry or disappear within a clade independently of a common ancestor.
Answer
  • Convergent evolution
  • homoplasy

Question 30

Question
A [blank_start]haplotype[blank_end] is a set of adjacent alleles or DNA sequences that is inherited together
Answer
  • haplotype

Question 31

Question
Looking at the graph of oil-droplet evolution in vervetes, Label 1. Which TWO species evolved independently from one another since the time of separation from the common ancestor and 2. Which vision was the common ancestor for the bottom group? and 3.What principle is graph illustrating?
Answer
  • Frogs and monotremes
  • pigmented
  • Homoplasy

Question 32

Question
The problem with [blank_start]gene-based phylogenies[blank_end] is that we cannot extract useable genetic material from fossils, and gene clocks may not be properly calibrated. Thus, we must combine phenotypic phylogenies and genotypic phylogenies.
Answer
  • gene-based phylogenies

Question 33

Question
Darwin promoted the [blank_start]comparative method[blank_end] when he pointed to baboons as a source of information
Answer
  • comparative method

Question 34

Question
Chimpanzees are more closely related to humans than they (chimpanzees) are related to gorillas.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 35

Question
The good thing about gene-based phylogenies is that the number of mutations that have occurred within and across clades can also serve as a molecular clock for dating.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 36

Question
[blank_start]Gene/Molecular Clocks[blank_end] operate on the assumption that spontaneous errors in nucleotide sequences during replication (mutations) happen at a fixed average rate.
Answer
  • Gene/Molecular Clocks

Question 37

Question
For a gene/molecular clock to be calibrated, a [blank_start]fossil record[blank_end] is conducted
Answer
  • fossil record

Question 38

Question
The hominoidea group does not include apes and is solely consisting of all homosapians (living and extinct)
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 39

Question
Hominoids are characterized by 3 distinct modes of locomotion.... which ones?
Answer
  • Bipedalism
  • Knuckle walking
  • Brachiation
  • Swimming
  • Sitting
  • Swinging

Question 40

Question
Humans are alone among the living primates in habitually walking bipedally. It is a feature only of the hominid lineage.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

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Bipedalism evolved from a [blank_start]knuckle walking[blank_end] ancestor
Answer
  • knuckle walking
  • brachiating
  • swimming
  • quadrapedal

Question 42

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The good thing about gene-based phylogenies:
Answer
  • Operate on the assumption that spontaneous errors in nucleotide sequences during replication (mutations) happen at a fixed average rate, reflecting amount of time has passed since they split off from a common ancestor. Calibrated using a fossil record [how they found dogs were wolves]
  • They are unbiased and scientifically accurate.
  • Helps identify possible selection pressures.
  • Allows us to infer WHEN attributes first emerged as well as it's functional significance.
  • They tell us not only WHEN something happened, but also WHERE it did.

Question 43

Question
[blank_start]Founder effects[blank_end] can be defined as the loss of genetic variability, through chance alone, that occurs when a small subset of a larger population is reproductively isolated and thus shifts the gene pool accordingly
Answer
  • Founder effects
  • Allopatric speciation
  • Synapomorphy
  • Anapomorphy

Question 44

Question
[blank_start]Homoplast[blank_end] is a major problem in the construction of phylogenies. But, if we can identify it as such, it can be valuable in the comparative method.
Answer
  • Homoplasy

Question 45

Question
[blank_start]Phylogenetic intertia[blank_end] is an expression of the same trait by different members of a clade only because it has been carried and hasn't come under selection pressure (if it ain't broke - don't fix it!)
Answer
  • Phylogenetic intertia

Question 46

Question
Even though we have equal numbers of living arboreal and terrestrial species, there is no evidence that the group size of each is a consequence of its ecological niche [analyze by interdependent contrasts]
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 47

Question
[blank_start]Language[blank_end] is a good example of descent with modification in hominin communities.
Answer
  • Language

Question 48

Question
[blank_start]Platyrrhini[blank_end] primates are broad nosed. Their nostrils are far apart and generally open to the side. These are the New World Monkeys [confined to Central and South America] and are typically diurnal.
Answer
  • Platyrrhini
  • Strepsirihini
  • Haporhini
  • Catarrhini

Question 49

Question
[blank_start]Catarrhini[blank_end] primates are narrow nosed that are flat and downwards. This includes humans and the old world monkeys/apes [Africa/Asia]
Answer
  • Catarrhini
  • Platyrrihini
  • Haplorhini
  • Strepsirhini

Question 50

Question
[blank_start]Strepsirhini[blank_end] primates have a bent, inwardly turned nose, and typically wet dog-like noses and are mostly nocturnal.
Answer
  • Strepsirhini
  • Haplorhini
  • Platyrrihni
  • Catarrhini

Question 51

Question
[blank_start]Haplorhini[blank_end] primates have simple noses are have 2 subtypes within this group.
Answer
  • Haplorhini
  • Strepsirhini
  • Platyrrihni
  • Catarrhini

Question 52

Question
We humans, and other apes of the Platyrrihini, are apart of the Hominoidea group.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 53

Question
Hominoidea [we + apes of the catarrhine] belong to this group. Phylogenetically, the apes are characterized by the absence of a tail and are generally divided into 2 groups:
Answer
  • Hylobatidae [lesser apes]
  • Hominidae [great apes]
  • Hylobatidae [great apes]
  • Hominidae [lesser apes]

Question 54

Question
The few living apes that were around during the miocene area occupied a variety of ecological niches and probably displayed physical and behavioural diversity that we now associate with the Old World Monkeys that replaced them [baboons, vervet monkeys]
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 55

Question
Not all living apes are ripe fruit eaters.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 56

Question
The era in which mammals first appeared, or the 'age of the reptiles'.
Answer
  • Misocene era
  • Mesozoic era
  • Cretacious period

Question 57

Question
Which 3 clades made it through the cretacious period when dinosaurs died?
Answer
  • Platypus
  • Marsupials
  • Placental mammals
  • Monkeys

Question 58

Question
There was a lineage splitting and this diversification is linked to the occupation of different and recently vacated ecological niches. It's likely that the diversification was underpinned by 3 apomorphic adaptations...
Answer
  • Sensitive hearing made possible by the evolutionary emergence of the detached middle ear from the mandible
  • The evolution of tribosphenic molars
  • The emergence of the capacity to regulate body temperature using metabolic heat or shivering
  • The evolution of bipedalism to maximize transportation efficiency through running
  • The evolution of speech

Question 59

Question
As a general rule, the most important thing to be able to do while up a tree is to avoid predation.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 60

Question
What 3 adaptations made the ability to move from one food source to another possible?
Answer
  • The evolution of primate grasp: the power grip, and the precision grip
  • The evolution of binocular vision to aid stereopsis
  • The emergence of only having 1 offspring at a time as opposed to a litter
  • The emergence of language
  • Speed increased by past experience with predators

Question 61

Question
Which 3 things were sacrificed for the adaptations to live in the trees?
Answer
  • Teeth
  • Claws
  • Panoramic vision
  • Sociality
  • Quadrapedalism
  • Problem solving
  • Binocular vision
  • Digit

Question 62

Question
[blank_start]Robust[blank_end] australopiths chewed their way out of trouble. Their teeth are large, grinding molars that allowed them to process hard foods. [blank_start]Gracile[blank_end] australopiths had teeth that were less committed to a particular ecological view.
Answer
  • Robust
  • Gracile

Question 63

Question
The first identified member of our species was either [blank_start]homo habilis[blank_end] or [blank_start]homo ergaster[blank_end]
Answer
  • homo habilis
  • homo ergaster

Question 64

Question
[blank_start]Homo erectus[blank_end] was the first hominin to leave Africa
Answer
  • Homo erectus

Question 65

Question
[blank_start]Homo florensiensis[blank_end] was a hominin with small stature and small brain size
Answer
  • Homo florensiensis

Question 66

Question
The emergence of the hominids is associated with:
Answer
  • living in the trees
  • competition with apes living alongside humans
  • the cooling down and drying out of Africa
  • predation driving hominids to expand across the world

Question 67

Question
The problems posed by savanna woodlands are of 2 kinds
Answer
  • Those associated with getting enough food and water
  • Those associated with increased risk of predation
  • Those associated with staying cool
  • Those associated with needing to communicate

Question 68

Question
Primates have a specialized cooling system to cool their brains.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 69

Question
Our inheritance of small incisors means that we were not dentally pre-adapted to meat eating.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 70

Question
Lucy, an [blank_start]australopithecus afarensis[blank_end], was readily bipedal. Unlike chimps and more like us, her arms are shortened relative to her legs and her spine is curved and her tarsal bones are less manoeuvrable.
Answer
  • australopithecus afarensis
  • homo erectus
  • homo habilis
  • homo ergaster
  • neanderthal
  • homo florensiensis

Question 71

Question
We see in hominids a reduction in size of incisors and canine teeth and a substantial increase in the size of the molars. We also find an increase in the robustness of the lower jaw.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 72

Question
Skeletal fossils allow us to infer not only the overall size of an extinct animal but also how it moved.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 73

Question
Living in a more open country places a premium on the need for [blank_start]locomotion to be energetically efficient[blank_end].
Answer
  • locomotion to be energetically efficient
  • self-defence against predation
  • trees to sprout up to live in
  • stereopsis vision for finding food

Question 74

Question
Running is more energetically demanding than running.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 75

Question
The smaller you are, it makes no difference in efficiency for walking vs running. If you are bigger, running has more energy costs.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 76

Question
Chimp walking is very inefficient compared to the cost expected for a quadrupedal mammal of the same weight. Chimpanzees are more efficient when they run.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 77

Question
Modern humans have an extraordinary capacity for long-distance running. Humans have a suite of adaptation that make the costs of endurance running tolerable....
Answer
  • Adaptations that minimize energy demand [balanced head, swivelling neck, long achilles tendons that soak up energy for free, large gluteus maximus for balance]
  • Humans have become taller and leaner [reduces the surface area exposed to direct sunlight and allows us to benefit from laminar air flow & alters body volume/surface ratio to ease heat loss]
  • Stereopsis vision [color vision, binocular vision, precision]
  • Bipedalism

Question 78

Question
The [blank_start]obstetric dilemma[blank_end] is the collision of competing locomotory and reproductive selection pressures.
Answer
  • obstetric dilemma

Question 79

Question
Primate fetuses grow faster than those of average mammals.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 80

Question
Human gestation is evolutionarily conserved.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 81

Question
If it weren't for our [blank_start]large heads[blank_end], we would all arrive in the world without any real complications.
Answer
  • large heads

Question 82

Question
In order to deal with the problems of large heads in humans, (2 things):
Answer
  • We are born earlier than we should be
  • Natural selection has produced very elastic neonatal skulls that can deform in response to the pressures imposed by a rigid pelvis
  • We have adapted to sweat in order to 'cool our brains'
  • Natural selection has provided us with language
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