During a medical history, you must take note of a patient's previous dental history.
This includes any previous r[blank_start]estorations[blank_end] (eg. crowns, fillings, bridges), dentures, and [blank_start]periodontal[blank_end] treatment.
You should make a note of the reason for any [blank_start]extractions[blank_end] and if they have had any [blank_start]orthodontic[blank_end] work.
Ask the patient about their pattern of [blank_start]attendance[blank_end], their [blank_start]availability[blank_end] for appointments, and if they have ever had any problems with [blank_start]local anaesthetic[blank_end].
Also ask if they have had any [blank_start]oral hygiene[blank_end] advice.
A[blank_start]ppointments[blank_end] at the dental school take a [blank_start]long time[blank_end] and treatment courses may continue for months. It is important to ask the patient if they are ok with this. You should ask the patient about their o[blank_start]ccupation[blank_end] and their mode of [blank_start]transport[blank_end] to the dental school.
In social history you should ask the patient about any [blank_start]dietary[blank_end] habits (e.g. snacking, fizzy drinks, tea, coffee etc) and their [blank_start]oral hygiene[blank_end] regime.
Asking about smoking;
- [blank_start]Do[blank_end] they smoke?
- If so, [blank_start]how much[blank_end] do they smoke? [blank_start]What[blank_end] do they smoke? [blank_start]How long[blank_end] have they smoked for? Have they ever [blank_start]quit[blank_end]? Have they any [blank_start]desire[blank_end] to quit?
Asking about drinking:
- Ask patient if they drink, and continue to [blank_start]CAGE[blank_end] questions, you can assess any risk from there.
If a person has smoked half a pack a day for the last 20 years, what is this is pack years?
If a person has smoked 3 packs a day for 8 years, how many pack years is this?
How many cigarettes are usually in a standard "pack"?
What does the C stand for in the CAGE questionnaire?
Have you ever cried from drinking too much?
Have you ever thought of cutting down on your alcohol?
How many centilitres of alcohol do you drink a day?
Can you go a day without drinking?
What does the A stand for in the CAGE questions?
Have you ever avoided work from drinking too much?
Have you ever felt annoyed by someone criticising your alcohol intake?
Have you ever been angry as a result of drinking?
What does the G stand for in the CAGE questions?
Have you ever felt guilty about your alcohol intake?
Have you ever felt good about your alcohol intake?
Have you ever gotten ill from your alcohol intake?
What does the E stand for in the CAGE questions?
Do you ever empty your stomach from excessive alcohol intake?
Do you ever have an eye opener or a drink first thing in the morning to steady your nerves?
Does everyone at home drink?
True or false? A pint of beer can range from 2.3-4.5 units depending on the ABV
What does a large glass of wine usually contain in units of alcohol?
A unit of alcohol is measured as...
10ml of vodka or similar spirit
25ml of pure alcohol
70ml of vodka or similar spirit
10ml of pure alcohol
How long after someone stops breathing do brain cells start to die?
This poor lady is unconscious in the road after collapsing on her bike from not having breakfast. Daft girl. Label the diagram correctly with the dropdown menu to show what you need to do with an unconscious casualty.
The recovery position is adopted to prevent the unconscious person from [blank_start]inhaling[blank_end] any v[blank_start]omit[blank_end], and should be done [blank_start]before[blank_end] you go for help if you are by yourself. If the casualty has a [blank_start]neck injury[blank_end] you should only turn if the airway is [blank_start]compromised[blank_end]. You should check the casualty thoroughly for other injuries or [blank_start]bleeding[blank_end] whilst you are observing them. They should ideally be covered with a [blank_start]blanket[blank_end] and [blank_start]reassured[blank_end] constantly.
Should you find an unconscious casualty that isn't breathing, you must [blank_start]call 999[blank_end] immediately, ensure the casualty is on a [blank_start]flat[blank_end] surface, and begin [blank_start]CPR[blank_end]
If a patient faints, they may show signs of...
Slow weak pulse
Hot to touch, sweaty
Rapid, strong pulse
Should a person faint in the chair, which position should they be placed in?
If a person faints in the chair, you should:
- [blank_start]Elevate[blank_end] legs above the heart to improve [blank_start]blood flow[blank_end]
- [blank_start]Loosen[blank_end] clothing (if restrictive!)
- Monitor [blank_start]breathing[blank_end] and [blank_start]pulse[blank_end]
The patient should recover in a [blank_start]few minutes[blank_end]. It may be a good idea to give them a [blank_start]glucose drink[blank_end]. Reassess patient for ABC and c[blank_start]onsciousness[blank_end]
A patient presents with rapid shallow breathing, fast heartbeat, sweating, trembling, and nausea - what are they likely experiencing?
If a person is hyperventilating, you should:
- [blank_start]Encourage[blank_end] patient to [blank_start]control[blank_end] their breathing
- Explain what is happening and [blank_start]reassure[blank_end]
- Guide patient to [blank_start]slow[blank_end] breathing
- Assess and [blank_start]monitor[blank_end]
If a patient presents with crushing chest pain, radiating to arms, greyish pallor, sweating and nausea, what are they most likely experiencing?
Where would you spray glyceryl trinitrate 0.4mg spray in an angina patient?
How long after administering a nitroglycerin spray or tablet should symptoms resolve in an angina patient? After this time an ambulance should be called.
Should a patient experience an acute attack of angina, you should:
Administer [blank_start]oxygen[blank_end] - 15L over 10 minutes
[blank_start]Glyceryl trinitrate[blank_end] spray (0.4mg) or tablet (0.5mg)
Check [blank_start]pulse[blank_end] for regularity
Monitor and r[blank_start]eassess[blank_end]
Refer to hospital if attack lasts longer than [blank_start]15 minutes[blank_end]
If a patient presents with crushing retrosternal pain, weak irregular pulse, loss of consciousness, pallor, breathlessness vomiting, what are they likely experiencing?
If you suspect someone is suffering a myocardial infarction, what is the first thing you should do?
Shout for help
Call an ambulance
Clear space for danger
Put in recovery position
If a patient is suffering a myocardial infarction, you should do the following:
- [blank_start]Call 999[blank_end] IMMEDIATELY
- Deliver [blank_start]oxygen[blank_end]
- Maintain [blank_start]airway[blank_end]
- Give [blank_start]glyceryl trinitrate[blank_end] spray sublingual
- Aspirin [blank_start]300mg[blank_end] crushed or chewed for [blank_start]anti platelet[blank_end] effect
- Monitor and reassess
When you are checking for signs of life of a casualty;
L[blank_start]OOK[blank_end] - for chest [blank_start]movement[blank_end]
L[blank_start]ISTEN[blank_end] - for [blank_start]breathing[blank_end]
F[blank_start]EEL[blank_end] - [blank_start]breath[blank_end] on cheek
L[blank_start]OOK[blank_end] AGAIN - signs of [blank_start]coughing[blank_end], limb [blank_start]movement[blank_end], perfusion
F[blank_start]EEL[blank_end] AGAIN - body [blank_start]warmth[blank_end]
Can you palpate a [blank_start]carotid pulse[blank_end] for more than [blank_start]10[blank_end] seconds? Do this whilst you check the other things. If the patient is breathing and you've put them in recovery position you should constantly asses [blank_start]ABCDE[blank_end] whilst you are waiting.
If a patient is experiencing an effective cough you should...?
Begin back blows x5 and abdominal thrusts x5
Encourage pt to cough
If a patient is experiencing an ineffective cough, you should...?
You are taking an oral temperature from a patient.
1. [blank_start]ICE[blank_end] - i[blank_start]ntroduce[blank_end], consent, [blank_start]expose[blank_end]
2. Ensure patient hasn't undertaken any activity that might lead to a [blank_start]false reading[blank_end], like e[blank_start]xercise[blank_end], hot or cold drink)
3. Place patient in [blank_start]comfortable[blank_end] position
4. Apply disposable cover if necessary
5. Place sensor in [blank_start]floor[blank_end] of mouth between [blank_start]lateral[blank_end] aspect of tongue and [blank_start]lingual[blank_end] aspect of m[blank_start]andible[blank_end]
6. Get patient to [blank_start]close their lips[blank_end] so the oral temperature is not altered by intake of air
7. Leave thermometer for [blank_start]60 seconds[blank_end], reassure patient
8. Remove thermometer, [blank_start]record[blank_end] in notes.
close their lips
The pulse rate in a healthy individual should range between....
Tachycardia is defined as...
More than 100bpm
More than 80bpm
Less than 80bpm
Less than 100bpm
Bradycardia is defined as...
More than 100bpm
More than 60bpm
Less than 100bpm
Less than 60bpm
True or false: the most likely cause of an irregular rhythm in the heartbeat is ventricular fibrillation