Because it can be paired with a wide variety of other reinforcers, money is a ____________________________.
generalised conditioned reinforcer
generalised unconditioned reinforcer
If you add a response cost to a token economy, you are adding a _______________________.
__________________________ involves using a tone as a conditioned reinforcer in recall ranching of fish.
Implementing a token economy
In a token economy, it is important to clearly explain and arrange how conditioned reinforcers will be ______________.
A person's ______________________ can account for variations in the stimuli that will serve as conditioned reinforcers or punishers for that person.
A potential mistake in setting up a token economies is to _______________________________.
stop the person bargaining with you
thin the schedule
define behaviours poorly
Protopopova and Wynne (2015) found that the behaviour of dogs in a shelter could be improved to increase their chances of adoption. Under a differential reinforcement of other behaviour schedule (DRO), reinforcers are presented ___________________________________.
at fixed times but only if the undesirable behaviour is not occurring
contingent on desirable behaviour
contingent on undesirable behaviour
TAGTEACH, which involves a clicker as a conditioned reinforcer for human behaviour, is called ____________________________.
teaching with unconditioned reinforcement
teaching with acoustical guidance
The difference between clicker training in animals and TAGTEACH is ___________________________________________.
there is no explicit pairing of the sound with a primary reinforcer in TAGTEACH
there is no backup reinforcer in TAGTEACH
clicker training in animals is more effective
A conditioned reinforcer is also called a _______________________.
Which of the following is not an example of conditioned reinforcement?
A civilian gets reprimanded for disobeying a direct order
The General gets paid in monthly instalments
A civilian avoids being bitten by not going outside alone.
Dr Sharp presses the button and the next powerpoint slide appears
Timmy’s teacher sets up a token economy to teach him to participate during carpet time. She puts a sticker on his chart every time he puts his hand up to answer a question. At the end of the day she tells him how many stickers he achieved. Identify the problem with this system.
Timmy should only get a sticker if he answered the question correctly
Stickers should never be used as tokens
There is no backup reinforcer
The teacher should not tell Timmy how many stickers he earned
A token economy should always be introduced on a ________ schedule and then changed to a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
Which of the following is NOT a mistake when implementing a token economy?
Negotiating the backup reinforcer part way through
Maintaining a CRF schedule
Not exchanging the token economy for a backup reinforcer
Changing the backup reinforcer to something more reinforcing
Select the correct answer. Target training during animal husbandry…
Punishes the animal for incorrect responses
Is only useful for primates and exotic animals
Increases animal interactions with humans
Decreases animal interactions with humans
Which of the following explains shaping?
Differential reinforcement of successive approximations of the target behaviour
Differential reinforcement of a selected target behaviour
Consistent reinforcement of successive behaviours
Conditioned reinforcement for absence of a target behaviour
Shaping can be used with...
Humans but only for sport-type behaviours
A and B.
A and C
Money is an example of...
A tertiary reinforcer
A generalised conditioned reinforcer
An unconditioned reinforcer
Which of the following use is NOT an example of conditioned reinforcement?
Using an acoustic marker to show a dancer when her foot is in the correct fouetté position.
Using a tone to attract fish to an area for aquaculture.
Giving a child an ice cream for getting 100% on a test at school.
Giving a child £2 for getting 100% on a test at school.
When should you NOT use shaping?
To teach a new behaviour.
When you can tell or show someone how to engage in the target behaviour.
To increase a previously-engaged in behaviour.
To teach verbal behaviour.
When superstitious behaviour occurs because of something in the environment, it is a Type 2 superstition. Behaviour is under superstitious ________________ control.
Skinner (1948) showed each pigeon in his study engaged in a dominant superstitious response when he delivered reinforcers on a ______ schedule of reinforcement.
Killeen (1978) showed that superstitious behaviour may not be a result of an inability to discriminate, but of ________________.
Adventitious reinforcement is when a reinforcer _____________________ a behaviour but is not caused by it.
occurs simultaneously with
Superstitious behaviour drifts over time because small ______________ in the behaviour are reinforced and become dominant.
Rule-governed behaviour arises with instruction; it is _______________.
affected by contingencies
The law of effect is a _____________________; it’s about things happening close together in time.
Supersitious behaviour is NOT ____________________.
difficult to produce
behaviour that drifts over time
Wager and Morris (1978) found that when a clown dispensed marbles on a fixed-time schedule, children developed superstitious behaviour that was characteristic of scalloped responding under a _________________ schedule.
A behaviour analytic account of values is that __________________________________.
values don’t exist
values are unconditioned
we learn to call some things good and some things bad
What is the cause of superstitious behaviour?
None of the above
Superstitious behaviour is:
Impossible to extinguish
Easy to extinguish
Difficult to extinguish
Not subject to the principles of behaviour analysis
Superstitious behaviour reinforced under VT and FT (response-independent) schedules produces responding similar to which type of schedule/s?
VI and FI
VR and FR
None of the above, superstitious behaviour has it’s own schedule of responding
Which of the following is an example of stimulus control?
The infected only attacks non-infected humans but not other infected
The infected salivates when hungry
The infected prefer to bite humans rather than animals because of the taste
The infected finds bright lights to be aversive and shields it’s eyes
Which of the following are true about rule-governed behaviour?
You do not need to experience the contingency to follow rule- governed behaviour
The rule can be written or spoken
The rule defines the contingency
A and C
All of the above
Culture is transmitted:
Through verbal behaviour alone
Through rule-governed behaviour, contingency-shaped behaviour and imitation
Only though contingency-shaped behaviour
Through imitation of others in that culture
When good events occurs, we tend to attribute the cause to ________ and when negative events occur, we tend to attribute the cause to _______.
The environment, ourselves.
Ourselves, the environment.
The environment, the environment
Which of the following could be classified as superstitious behaviour?
The Commander took his weapon with her on a recon mission as she often needs to use it when encountering the infected
The General speaks loudly so that all civilians can hear him
A civilian chooses the Healers team because they like to help people
An infected bangs on all vending he encounters because once when he did this a human happened to walk by
In behavioural terms, holding someone responsible is:
Choosing whether to apply a consequence
Blaming the individual, not the environment
Blaming culture for an individual’s actions
Type 2 superstitions describe superstitious discriminative control. This means:
attributing behaviour to culture
attributing a behaviour to the presence of a stimulus
attributing an environmental event to the presence of a stimulus
attributing an environmental event to the presence of a behaviour