Intro to Psychology: Ch. 8: Cognition & Learning


Flashcards I created for my Intro to Psych (Gateways To Mind And Behavior) online course; specifically for Chapter 8, which covers Cognition, Language, Creativity, & Intelligence.
Morgan Tomas-Klostermann
Flashcards by Morgan Tomas-Klostermann, updated more than 1 year ago
Morgan Tomas-Klostermann
Created by Morgan Tomas-Klostermann over 6 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
knowledge information that is stored in our long-term memories
thinking (cognition) use of knowledge to accomplish some sort of goal, to perceive and understand the world, to communicate with others, and to solve problems
language system of communication that has a set vocabulary and a set structure of grammar
expert problem-solving based on acquired knowledge and strategies
creative thinking enhanced by strategies that promote divergent thinking
divergent thinking ability to generate many ideas quickly in response to a single prompt
functional fixedness limitation of only being able to see objects in their familiar roles
mental set tendency to approach a new problem in the same way you approached a similar problem in the past, but it doesn't work out; you stop looking for other ways
confirmation bias to ignore or find fault with info that doesn't fit with your opinion, & to keep looking until you find info that matches
representative heuristic based on how well an object or event matches (represents) an existing prototype in our minds 
availability heuristic estimates probabilities based on info that can be recalled (made available) from personal experience or memory
intelligence Alfred Binet ; our global capacity to find and maintain a purpose, adapt our strategy, and evaluate the strategy
influences of intelligence heredity and environment
raising intelligence 1) improved social conditions 2) education (environment)
synesthesia experiencing one sense in terms normally associated with another sense
prototype ideal models ; used to identify concepts
experiential processing thought that is passive , effortless, and automatic
reflective processing thought that is active , effortful, and controlled
basic units of thought images, concepts, and language
images picture-like mental representations 
concepts ideas that represent categories of objects or events 
concept types conjunctive, relational, and disjunctive
conjunctive concepts presence of 2 or more features (ex: motorcycle)
relational concepts how objects relate to something else (ex: larger, above, left)
disjunctive concepts at least 1 of several possible features/meanings (ex: strike)
stages of creative thought Orientation, Preparation, Incubation, Illumination, and Verification
types of mental representations (2) concepts and imagery (images)
types of intelligence practical, analytical, and creative
bell curve normal distribution
Normal Range (IQ) 85-115
Intellectually Disabled Range (IQ) below 70
Gifted Range (IQ) 130 and above
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