How the War affected civilians

sagar.joban
Flashcards by , created over 6 years ago

GCSE Britain Flashcards on How the War affected civilians, created by sagar.joban on 06/07/2013.

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sagar.joban
Created by sagar.joban over 6 years ago
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Question Answer
How the War affected civilians: Conscription Despite the steady flow of volunteers, there was a high casualty rate. Late 1915 - conscription. Highly controversial and was debated through winter 1915-1916. By May 1916, the needs of war and unrest in Ireland meant that men aged 18-41 had to fight due to Military Services Act, except from reserved occupations like mining and munitions. Conscientious objectors (conchies) had to appear at local tribunals to explain why they didn't fight - most joined to do medical or support service work. About 1,500 were imprisoned.
How the War affected civilians: Government Control - DORA August 1914 - Defence of the Realm Act. Government took over coal mines, railways and shipping and fixed profits and wages. Early 1915, DLG became Minister of Munitions to reorganise production and set up state-run factories. By the end of the war, 20,000 factories were controlled.
How the War affected civilians: Food and Rationing DORA also allowed the Government to control food supplies. Food prices rose dramatically before 1916 but when German U-Boats began to attack shipping on a large scale, it became an issue. Government tried to put all available land into production - 3 million extra acres by 1918. Compulsory rationing by 1918 - sugar, butter, meat, jam and margarine. Most people supported it - was a black market though but penalties under DORA were severe.
How the War affected civilians: Civilian Casualties 1,500 were killed by enemy actions - very light compared to military casualties. In Dec. 1914, German warships shelled Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby. In Jan. 1915, giant Zeppelin airships had 57 bombing raids on England. In May 1915, German Gotha bombers began the first of 27 raids on British towns.
How the War affected civilians: Propaganda DORA allowed the government to control newspapers and other media - censorship, especially national press. Pacifist newspaper 'The Tribunal' was shut down and Socialist paper 'The Daily Herald' was closely monitored.
How the War affected civilians: Patriotism - Books and Newspapers After the War, 12 newspaper owners were knighted for their wartime services ('The Daily Express', a patriotic newspaper, circulation went up in the war). Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy and H.G. Wells produced patriotic materials freely and sold thousands.
How the War affected civilians: Patriotism - Media Propaganda was also aimed directly at children through books, games and toys - very effective. Films like 'For the Empire' and 'The Battle of the Somme' reached huge audiences (TBotS had 20 mill.). Distributed by the War Dept. - TBotS gave a more realistic view of the war but many scenes were faked.
How the War affected civilians: Recruitment Between August 1914 - March 1916, 2.5 million volunteered for the British Army. Recruitment campaign of 1914 by the Gov. was more successful that expected. Around 750,000 joined in the first few weeks. Whole groups of friends joined as a 'Pal's Battalion'.