Applied Year 11 - Unit 3: Topic 3.2.1 Producing food

Mrs Z Rourke
Flashcards by Mrs Z Rourke, updated more than 1 year ago More Less
Mrs Z Rourke
Created by Mrs Z Rourke over 1 year ago


GCSE Biology Flashcards on Applied Year 11 - Unit 3: Topic 3.2.1 Producing food, created by Mrs Z Rourke on 03/26/2018.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What resources do plants need to survive? Minerals, water, carbon dioxide and light
How is the leaf adapted for its function? Leaf (binary/octet-stream) Large surface area - maximise light absorption Thin - short distance for carbon dioxide diffusion Cuticle - Waxy, waterproof layer which reduces water loss and its transparent to allow light through
Why does a plant carry out photosynthesis? To convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose using light energy
What part of the plant cell carries out photosynthesis? Chloroplast
What is the green pigment called in the chloroplast that absorbs light energy? Chlorophyll
What controls the process of photosynthesis in a plant cell? Enzymes
What is the word equation for photosynthesis? Photo (binary/octet-stream)
What are the 3 limiting factors of photosynthesis? Light intensity Temperature Carbon dioxide concentration
How does the plant use glucose that is produced during photosynthesis? Respiration; Converted to starch for storage; Used to make cellulose, proteins and oils.
What nutrients do plants require to grow properly? NPK: Nitrates (N) Phosphates (P) Potassium (K)
What happens if plants do not have enough N,P or K? Nitrates - results in poor growth Phosphates - results in poor root growth Potassium - results in yellowing of leaves
What can farmers use to promote better growth in plants? NPK fertilisers
What is intensive farming? Intensive farming is a type of farming which produces as much food as possible by making full use of the land. The aim is to maximize yields.
What factors need to be controlled in intensive farming? 1. Temperature - animals will use less energy if their environment is warm 2. Restrict movement - the more animals move, the more energy is wasted 3. Food - use high protein diet to promote growth 4. Security - animals need to be kept safe from predators 5. Antibiotics - to prevent the spread of disease
What are the problems with using chemicals in intensive farming? Fertilisers can cause eutrophication (Unit 2.2) Pesticides can have unintended effects on insects such as bees Overuse of antibiotics has led to antibiotic resistant bacteria
What is organic farming? In summary organic farming: • does not use artificial chemicals (fertilisers, pesticides etc.) • uses crop rotation • uses animal and plant manures • uses hand weeding and biological pest control
What are the advantages of organic farming? • environmental advantages of not using pesticides and artificial fertilisers • medical advantages of minimising the use of antibiotics (lower chance of creating antibiotic-resistant bacteria) • animal welfare advantages of allowing animals to move in their environment
What are the disadvantages of organic farming? • takes longer to produce crops • tends to have lower yields • is often more expensive
What is biological control? All crop pests have natural predators. Farmers can make use of this to control pests that may otherwise damage their crops. This is called biological pest control. For example, ladybirds eat aphids. These predators can be grown in large numbers and released onto a crop.
What are the advantages of genetic modification? GM crops have a better yield. Resistance to pests, weeds and disease may be built into the crops. Crops may be produced that stay ripe for longer so they can be shipped long distances. Crops may be produced that are more capable of thriving in regions with poor soil.
What are the disadvantages of genetic modification? GM crops may cross-pollinate with nearby non-GM plants and this may create ecological problems. It could give rise to super-weeds and super-pests. There may be undesirable consequences of changing a gene. Genes don’t work in isolation, changing a few genes could cause unpredictable results. GM crops pose a risk to food diversity as the plants are much more dominant.
What are the advantages of selective breeding? Crops give better yields Harmful traits can be bred out Resistance to pests and diseases Crops may be bred to have more nutritional value
What are the disadvantages of selective breeding? Some genes would be lost, making it more difficult to produce new varieties in the future. Selective breeding can cause genetic variation to decrease. This may make mean one disease will affect many crops. There is an increased risk of genetic disease.
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