Physical Activity


The benefits, determinants and interventions of physical activity
Hannah Tribe
Flashcards by Hannah Tribe, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Tribe
Created by Hannah Tribe over 8 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is the difference between physical activity and fitness? Physical activity is any bodily movement of skeletal muscle, at any level of aerobic capacity, whereas fitness establishes the levels of ability to do physical activity
What are the guidelines for physical activity? At least 150 minutes of moderate intensity activity per week, in bouts of 10 minutes or more each. Alternatively, 75 minutes a week of high intensity exercise. 2 sessions of strength training a week should also be incorporated. Should also aim to minimise the time spent being sedentary.
What constitutes 'moderate' intensity? Exercising until your body feels warm, your heart rate and breathing are slightly increased but you are still able to hold a conversation
What constitutes 'vigourous' intensity? Exercising until your body is warm, your heart rate and breathing have increased and you are unable to talk at the same time
How do the guidelines differ for people aged >65? The guidelines are the same, but they should also incorporate exercises to improve balance and coordination in order to minimise the risk of falls (e.g. yoga, tai chi)
How do the guidelines differ for children and why? Children should aim for 60 minutes of activity a day, because children are naturally more active than adults anyway
What are the benefits of strength training? (2) 1. Lower mortality 2. Lower risk of CVD or CV events (e.g MI)
What are the guidelines for strength training? For beginners, should use weights 60-70% of their 1 rep maximum, in 2-4 sets of 8-12 reps each, with 2 or 3 minutes between each set. For experienced people, the same guidelines but should use weights up to 80% of their 1 rep max. For endurance training, use weights <50% of their 1 rep max, in no more than 2 sets of 15-20 reps each.
How can physical activity be measured and what are some disadvantages of these methods? (3) 1. Question people on their activity, however this can be inaccurate and people have a tendency to over-estimate 2. Give exercise diaries for people to complete, however this often has poor compliance amongst patients 3. Take bodily measurements, such as heart rate (although other things can also raise HR like caffeine, stress etc.), wearing a pedometer or using an accelerometer, which measures movement in 3 dimensions.
What factors have contributed to the decrease in levels of physical activity over the last 50 years? (3) 1. Increased transport options, meaning people are less likely to walk to places 2. A decrease in the number of manual jobs, with more office-based jobs 3. Easier ways to do simple tasks (e.g. machines to do them for us)
What is a lack of physical activity a risk factor for?(6) 1. General increased mortality 2. CVD 3. Obesity 4. Cancer (colon and breast) 5. Musculoskeletal problems (e.g. osteoporosis) 6. Mental Health problems (e.g. depression, dementia)
What can be a risk when doing regular physical activity? Musculoskeletal injuries
Why might we experience psychological benefits from physical activity? (4) 1. It provides a distraction from stressors 2. Exercise releases endorphins that increase mood and relieve pain 3. Exercise decreases levels of stress hormones (cortisol and adrenaline) to allow relaxation 4. Exercise makes you warmer, which tends to increase mood
According to studies, who is most active? (6) 1. Those with a higher socio-economic status, as they tend to live in safer neighbourhoods with the access to gyms, etc. 2. Men (perhaps due to a stronger sports culture) 3. People who have fewer barriers from activity (e.g. those with more free time) 4. Younger people, who tend to have less responsibility (children, jobs etc.) 5. People who have a higher level of social support (sporty friends etc.) 6. People who had active childhoods
How can genes influence physical activity? People can have a genetic predispostion to being more 'fidgety' and thus more active, and there may also be a genetic component in enjoying exercising
What are the different levels of exercise intervention? (4) 1. Individual - allowing tailoring to that person, however this is more costly and may not be effective in the long term 2. Group interventions - allows less tailoring, but is more cost effective 3. Organisational/Community interventions such as PE teachers to give a more widespread impact, however these tend to favour those who need it least 4. Societal - large campaigns targeting all people, which have the widest impact
What techniques can be used to promote physical activity? (6) 1. Decision balance sheets, which discuss the advantages and disadvantages of exercise 2. Relapse prevention strategies 3. Goal setting 4. Reward schemes (without being patronising) 5. Stimulus control 6. Monitoring exercise
What factors should be taken into consideration when setting goals? (4) 1. Frequency of exercise 2. Intensity of exercise 3. Type of exercise 4. Time that you will spend doing that exercise
What is a relapse prevention plan? A list of all possible barriers to exercise, and then having a strategy in place for each of these
What are some barriers to physical activity and what 3 categories could they be placed in? 1. Individual barriers, such as lack of time, lack of self esteem, lack of know-how or illness 2. Social barrier, such as being in a peer group of lazy people 3. Environmental barriers, such as living in an unsafe neighbourhood, not having access to a leisure centre or parks
What is 'identity shaping' in this context? Training people so that exercising becomes part of their identity and they feel uncomfortable if they don't do it
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