Personality Test Revision

alexandra.carr
Flashcards by alexandra.carr, updated more than 1 year ago
alexandra.carr
Created by alexandra.carr almost 6 years ago
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Year 10 Psychology (Personality) Flashcards on Personality Test Revision, created by alexandra.carr on 10/24/2014.

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Question Answer
Define Personality. An individuals unique and relatively consistent group of characteristics that determine patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors when alone and with others
Define Character. One aspect of your personality on which others judge you as being right or wrong as an individual and a social being
Define Temperament. Our tendency to emotionally respond or react to people and events. Is observable at birth and is assumed by some psychologists to be inherited
Define Mood. An emotional state that colors our perceptions of the world and influences the way in which we interact with others
What is a personality theory? An approach to describing and explaining the origins and development of personality, focusing on how people are similar, how they differ and why every individual is unique
Why is a personality theory developed? to attempt to understand, explain and interpret the complicated patterns people's of thoughts, feelings and behaviours
What are Freud's 3 dimension that make up a persons behaviour? Unconscious, preconscious and conscious
Describe unconscious Images, thoughts and feelings being experienced right now
Describe preconscious. memories and sensations that can easily be brought into consciousness at any moment
Describe unconscious Desires, impulses and wishes that would produce considerable anxiety if allowed into consciousness
What is the most important level of the mind and why? The unconscious because our desires, impulses and wishes are thought to fuel our behaviours as they are what we are always striving to achieve
What are Freud's 3 interrelating systems of personality? Id, Ego and Superego
What are the two dimensions of Id? Eros: instincts that help preserve life Thanatos: instincts potentially cause death
Describe Id and its operating principle. Primal desires/ basic natures and it operates on the pleasure principle (needs must be met to ensure pleasure and avoid pain)
Describe ego and its operating principle. Reason and self control and it operates on the reality principle (applies logic to Id's demands)
Describe ego and its operating principle. The quest for perfection and it runs on the Moral principle (informing our decisions of what is right and wrong)
Define Defense Mechanisms. unconscious psychological process through which the ego defends and protects itself against anxiety arising from psychological conflicts.
List 3 defense mechanisms. Denial, Repression and Reaction-Formation
Define Denial refusing to believe whatever it is that would cause anxiety
Define Repression. preventing unacceptable thoughts and feelings from entering conscious awareness, therefor preventing anxiety
Define Reaction-Formation. thinking, feeling or behaving in a manner which is opposite to how you really think, feel or behave
Define Erogenous Zone. the area of the body where pleasure is obtained
What causes a fixation? If a child experiences anxiety during a psychosexual development stage
What are the 5 psychosexual stages? Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent and Genital
Where is pleasure obtained and what is the conflict during the oral stage? the mouth (sucking, biting, chewing) and the conflict is around the role of the mouth
What are the 2 types of fixations for the oral stage? Oral Receptive: needy, swallow ideas take comfort from eating etc, passive and sensitive to rejection Oral Aggressive: verbally abusive, mouth related aggression and hostile
Where is the pleasure centred and what is the conflict during the anal stage? Around the anus and passing stools and the conflict is in toilet training
what are the 2 fixations from the anal stage? Anal Retentive: stingy, stubborn, perfectionist and OCD Anal Expulsive: Lack of self control, messy and careless
what are the 2 fixations from the anal stage? Anal Retentive: stingy, stubborn, perfectionist and OCD Anal Expulsive: Lack of self control, messy and careless
Where is the pleasure centred in the phallic stage and what is the conflict? the genitals and unconscious desires for parent develop. the conflict is between the boy and his father
What does a fixation at the phallic stage cause? sexual deviancies (promiscuity or avoidance), problems with authority and weak or confused sexual identity
What is the focus of the latency stage? On school and making friends and socialising, sexual energy is used for academic and social pursuits.
Where is the focus in the genital stage and what is the conflict? still the genitals but sexual urges are directed onto opposite sex peers. Now the interest is also on the welfare of others, not just on the individual.
What can a fixation at the genital stage cause? avoidance behaviour in relationships, reluctance to commit and childlike behaviour
Define Type Theories different personality types in terms of a group of characteristics that individuals have in common with others. Individuals with the same specified characteristics are said to be of the same personality type
Who developed the Type A and Type B personalities? Friedman and Rosenman
What are the characteristics of a Type A personality? ambitious, goal orientated, impatient. easily upset and hostile, impatient, successful, rarely satisfied,
What are the characteristics of a Type B personality? easy going, can control anger, can relax, not incredibly driven, understand their emotions
What is the relationship between personality and heart disease? Type A males are 2 times as likely to contract heart disease than Type B males
What are the key characteristics of a Type C personality? strong need to conform, pessimistic, avoid and deny negative emotions
What is the correlation between personality TYPE and the onset of cancer? Type C personalities are 16 times more likely to contract cancer as they suppress emotions and thus suppress their immune system
What are some criticisms of the Empirical Approach (TYPE THEORY)? -Conflicting evidence from different studies -Use of personality to explain links = inaccurate -Classify only by most dominant characteristics -Limited number of categories -single label is to simplistic -don't fit into one type perfectly -narrow view of personality -no personality development
Define Trait Theory. focus on measuring, describing and identifying individual differences in personality
what are the 3 assumptions of trait theory? 1. personality traits are stable and predictable over time 2. personality traits are stable across different situations 3. personality consists of a number of different traits and some people have more or less of each trait
Who developed the three dimensions of personalities? Eysenck
What are the three dimensions of personality? introversion-extroversion, neuroticism-emotional stability, psychoticism
What are the criticisms of trait theories? -Doesn't explain how traits change over time -Small sample leads to oversimplification -Doesn't count different traits for different personalities
Define Humanistic Theory. to understand a person properly, you need to understand the world as they do
Who developed humanistic theory? Rogers (1961)
Define Self-actualisation. Reaching full potential and it depends on how a person is treated and how they see themselves
Define Self-concept all perceptions and beliefs a person has about themselves. develops over time and childhood experiences are critical.
what is an example of a well adjusted personality in rogers theories? Genuine, accepting and empathetic
What are some of the criticisms of the humanistic approach? - simplistic, romantic and vague - encourage self fulfillment - unrealistic and unscientific
What are the 5 different ways of measuring personality? inventory, Myer-briggs type indicator, Hollands self directed search, Roschach inkblot and the TAT.
Define Personality Inventories. a test which has a list of questions designed to assess aspects of personality
What is an example of a personality inventory test? the Myer-Briggs type indicator
What are the strengths of a personality indicator test? quick, uses computer scoring, can test multiple people at once, can measure traits simultaneously
What are the limitations of a personality indicator test? cultural bias, can be manipulated, provide limited information
Define Projective Test. person is shown visual material for which they provide an interpretation. eg. Roschach inkblot test
What does a projective test do? attempts to uncover and individuals unconscious aspects of personality
What are the strengths of projective tests? difficult to fake, provide information in persons own words
What are the weaknesses of projective tests? difficult to interpret, subjective=open to errors, individuals may not have a response
What does TAT test stand for? Thematic Apperception Test
What 4 things does a TAT test ask? What has led up to the event shown What is happening at the moment What the characters are feeling or thinking What the outcome of the story was
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