chapter 2: GENES, EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOUR

Susannah Mackenz
Flashcards by , created about 5 years ago

Information taken from the textbook: Psychology Frontiers and Applications by Passer

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Susannah Mackenz
Created by Susannah Mackenz about 5 years ago
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Question Answer
Genotype Specific genetic makeup of an individual
Observable features that reflect genetic endowment Phenotype
Chromosome Tightly coiled molecule of DNA that is partly covered by protein,
What does this represent? images.jpeg (image/jpeg) Tightly coiled molecule of DNA, the chromosome
DNA portion of the chromosome that carries _____ Genes
Each nucleus contains ______chromosomes; _______pairs. Each nucleus contains 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs
This represents? FISH_chromosomes_300dpi.jpg (image/jpg) The number of chromosomes a somatic cell's nucleus has. 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs.
Alternative forms of a gene that produce different characteristics are called? Alleles
The particular characteristic a _______ trait controls will be displayed. The particular characteristic a _______trait controls will not be expressed, unless both parents have this trait. Dominant; recessive
A number of genes working together to create a specific phenotypic trait (i.e., appearance trait) Polygenic transmission
________ _________magnifies potential variation that can occur; the union of the sperm and egg can result in 70 trillion potential _______, even among siblings, although 99.9% of genes are identical among ________. Polygenic transmission; genotypes; humans
More understanding about our genome and our genes leads to better ______ discoveries Medical/pharmaceutical
In 1990, the ______ _________occurred. In 2001, the ____ _____ was published. Geneticists started the human genome project in _____. ; Then the Genetic map was published.
The ____ ______ project wanted to map the specific human genome (the sum of a human's ______). They found out what? And what does contemporary research allow us to do? -Human genome project -Wanted to find the human DNA/ chemical components of it/ completely -Wanted to identify and map all genes of the genome (physical and functional) -Found out humans contain less genes than previously thought. Like a fruit fly. - Allows us to research new medicines and pharmaceuticals.
What exactly is the human genome? The set of genetic information for homo sapiens. DNA sequence within the chromosome pairs Mitochondrial DNA
This image represents? index.jpeg (image/jpeg) The human genome
The human genome Image represents? Karyotype.png (image/png)
Represents? image008.jpg (image/jpg) The relationship between gene, chromosome, and DNA
The relationship between? 678f62dce35d0fc7ef2333d6d3bfbf53744374fffffffff.JPG (image/JPG) The relationship between DNA, gene, and chromosome and nucleus.
What does A represent? 3d_model_DNA_web4g.JPG (image/JPG) "Junk": portion of DNA strand that is not a gene .
Process of recombinant DNA procedures? 1) Specific enzymes cut DNA 2) Combine this DNA with another organism's 3) Insert the combination into a host (such as bacterium) 4) DNA multiplies
Genotype and phenotype are not identical because some genes are? Dominant and some are recessive!
Genes affect development, structure, and function in the human body through controlling production of ______ Proteins
Gene engineering allows? Duplicate gene material Alter gene material Potentially Repair dysfunctional genes
Polygenic Multiple genes interact to form traits
Who is interested in studying this pathway: Hereditary & environment-->Psychology Behavioural geneticists
______ _______ is a statistic that represents how much of a variation is heritable. Heritability coefficient
Heritability refers to? Heredity refers to? Heredity: inherited characteristics from parent to offspring Heritability: how much of the variation of a characteristic in a population can be attributed to genetics.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PERCENT GENETICS VS ENVIRONMENT, AND AMT OF VARIATION? I.E..., WHAT DOES 0.50 HERITABILITY COEFFICIENT MEAN>? STUDY THIS!!!!!!!
Heritability coefficients as they pertain to common human traits could be classed into three groups: action/performance, personality, and emotion . What are common HC for "action/performance"? Alcohol problem: 0.26 Smoking: 0.52 Activity level: 0.25 School achievement: 0.40
HC pertaining to emotion? -Anxiety disorder 0.35 -Depression disorder 0.37 - Emotional stability 0.31 -Antisocial behaviour 0.41
HC relating to personality? Extraversion: 0.36 Conscientiousness: 0.28 Agreeableness: 0.28 Impulsivity: 0.45
HC relating to quantifiable things: IQ, height, weight Height: 0.80 Weight: 0.60 IQ: 0.50-0.70
The chromosome images.jpeg (image/jpeg)
________ is the likelihood that two people share a common characteristic. Concordance
When an adopted kid is compared to his/her adoptive AND biological parent(s) to indicate heredity. Adoption study
A behaviour genetics method in which twins are compared; especially useful when they are raised in different places. Twin studies
Twins can be ______ or ______. Fraternal or identical.
Compare identical and fraternal twins on the basis of biology. Identical twins are formed from the same egg, monozygotic, and share 1.00 HC. The chance of this happening is 1:250 Fraternal twins are formed from different eggs, are dizygotic, and share 0.50 HC in a "sibling" relationship. The chance is 1:125
Heredity, hereditary, heritability Differentiate between..
What do A and B represent? SemiIdenticalTwinshhhhujj.GIF (image/GIF) A represents 1) the fertilization of an egg 2) The fertilized egg 3) The fertilized egg spilts into two eggs, producing two IDENTICAL twins B represents 1) 2 separate eggs separately fertilized 2) producing fraternal twins
Gene therapy and genetic counseling controversy -Sometimes results about probability of disease are not accurate - Question of ethics
"researchers have inserted a gene associated with Alzhiemer's disease into the brain of mice and later tested the impact on neurotransmission, brain structure, and behaviour" Knock-in procedure
Genetic Screening and Therapy can be effective in... -Tests for susceptibility to disease (Alzheimer's, ), cancers, arthritis - Diagnosis -Likelihood of conceiving a child with problems - Risk associated with heart, cancers, or psychiatric disorders
Controversy/ arguments surrounding gene therapy and counseling ETHICAL/POLITICAL ISSUES -Tests can be wrong; only tell you about susceptibility or risk - Erroneous (wrong) results or misinterpretation of results possible - Possibility of genetic discrimination (abortion, employer, etc.)
Good things about gene therapy Medicine and pharmaceutical opportunities
Good things about genetic counselling --Help families to make health decisions for them and their kids (or future kids) -Lifestyle choices/change
Most useful research method in the field of behavioural genetics? The study of identical twins raised in separate environments.
Reaction Range The range of possibilities in the expression of a gene that the genetic code allows.
An individual inherits a potential range of IQ at birth. The genetic component is not set in stone; what is actually expressed depends on the environment Reaction range
Parents of little Johnny are very smart. This means his potential IQ range is high. However, where it falls in this potential IQ range depends on environmental factors, Reaction range
Dyslexia -Not intellectual deficient, or blamed on education or the senses - Difficulty reading - 6 genetic locations that pose as risk for dyslexia -Lower activation in the left temporal lobe in dyslexic patients than non
Environment and adoption programs account for how many IQ points? 15-20
Three levels of analysis in behavioural genetics? Environmental, biological, and psychological
What is the biological level of analysis? The nervous system structures and functions; brain scans; study of impaired brains s
What is the environmental level of analysis? --Environment brought up in - Rewards and stimulation - Punishment -Culture
What is the psychological level of analysis? Emotions, thoughts, behaviour, normal and non-regular cognitive ability; plasticity: thoughts and behaviors influence the brain just like the brain influences thoughts and behaviours.
Neural Plasticity/ brain plasticity The ability for the brain to change in response to the environment and experiences
Review: Biologically based mechanisms
Receive information from the environment, process it, and then respond to it; based on the idea that humans are biological beings that actively respond to their environment and are self-regulating. Biologically based mechanisms
We begin life with innate _________ that enable us to take in, process, and respond to information, predisposing us to behave, feel, and even think in certain ways Biologically based mechanisms
"In humans, ____ _____ allow us to, among other things, learn, remember, speak a language, perceive certain aspects of our environment at birth, respond with universal emotions, and bond with other humans." Inborn biological mechanisms
"important aspects of _____ ____ such as aggression, altruism, sex roles, protecting kin, and mate selection, are the products of ________. Social behaviour; evolved mechanisms. (Behaviour doesn't evolve, only structures)
Behavior does not evolve; only _____. Structures.
Genetic variations can be caused by Mutations, random events, and accidents
Natural selection acts as a _____ filter
"Fitness" The ability to survive and carry on genes.
By-product of natural selection: mutations
Domain-specific adaptation Human mind is not a general all purpose problem solver, but, instead, a collection of "modules" that allowed adaptations in different areas. DSA: adaptation specializing.
Adaptation specialization; detecting suitable mate or eating a specific food DSA: Domain-Specific Adaptations
An ________ thinks about the relationship between behaviour and adaptation and evolution Evolutionary psychologist
Evolutionary personality theory Personality traits are a function of natural selection (evolution)
Parental investment TEER: Time, Energy, Effort, Risk, in raising an offspring
More parental investment, the more ______ in choosing a mate Selective
One male mates with many females Polygyny
Monogamous Parents stay together at least until development; one partner for an amount of time
Polyandry One female mates with many males
polygynandry Sexual promiscuity: 2 or more males + 2 or more females
Three most important characteristics in a mate Attractiveness, dependability, and emotional stability
Men most look for Physical attractiveness and good health
Women most look for Status, earning potential, and ambitiousness
Men like _____women, whereas women like ____men Younger; older
Men want "To spread the seed"; to be your only mate
Women want: The men to stay; men with high parental investment (Rate Men who care for children in a picture, and not Men Vacuuming, as more attractive).
Cooperation Mutual benefit
Group of individuals achieving more (or potentially) than alone Cooperation
Altruism One individual helps another, but with some cost. (Groundhogs, etc. ). There are two important theories
How many theories are there of altruism? 2
Theories of altruism (2) Kin selection theory; reciprocal altruism
Kin selection theory A theory of altruism; increase survival of relatives: most likely to help relatives closest
Reciprocal Altruism theory The other theory of altruism apart from Kin Selection; Long-term cooperation; the belief in mutual help
Genetic determinism The view (sometimes wrong) that genes are definite. The belief genes determine who you are as a species. Genes are destiny. --Treatments discovered through gene research and therapy to modify
True or false: evolution follows a natural plan False: evolution describes adaptations over time and space.
Social Darwinism Idea of genetic superiority; eugenics, selective breeding to produce a "master race"; the idea that upper class people are also genetically better.
How are traits passed from one generation to the next? What effect do nature and nurture have on development? Are complex traits inherited in humans? Can personality have a genetic or biological component? Why should we be interested in twins? STUDY