Geography Restless Earth

N H
Flashcards by N H, updated more than 1 year ago
N H
Created by N H over 6 years ago
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Flashcards on Geography Restless Earth, created by N H on 11/27/2014.

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Question Answer
Restless Earth Earthquakes Resless Earth Earthquakes
Describe the process of an earthquake • At a destructive plate boundary sometimes plates can get 'stuck' together. • This causes pressure to build up. • Eventually the pressure is released, sending out seismic waves. • Seismic waves are released from the focus - the waves are stronger and cause more damage nearer the focus, damaging surrounding areas. This is how an earthquake occurs.
State the definition of an earthquake An earthquake is a sudden shaking of the ground, that causes great destruction, due to the movements within the earth's crust.
State the definition of epicentre The epicentre is the point on the earth's surface that is directly above the focus.
State the definition of focus The focus is the point of origin of an earthquake.
Explain about the Mercalli Scale The Mercalli Scale uses subjective descriptions of the resulting damage of an earthquake to measure its effects. It uses the scale from I to XII (meaning total destruction; objects have been thrown into the air; the land appears to be liquid and visibly rolling like waves.
Explain about the Richter Scale The Richter Scale measures the amount of energy released during an earthquake. The scale starts at 1 and there is no upper limit to the scale (although there has never been a recording higher than 9.5). The scale is logarithmic, and the scale is measured with a seismometer.
What is a seismometer? A machine with an arm that moves from the vibrations of the earth.
What is a logarithmic scale? Each step in the scale is ten times greater than the previous number. For exampl, 2 on the sclae gives out 10 times more energy that 1.
Restless Earth Earthquake CASE STUDY HAITI (LEDC) Restless Earth Earthquake CASE STUDY HAITI (LEDC)
State the causes of the Haiti earthquake • Happened on the 12th January 2010, in Haiti (lower economically developed country). • Caused by a conservative plate margin between the North American plate and the Caribbean plate (both continental plates). • Epicentre was 15km south west of the capital Port-au-Prince. • Earthquake was measured 7 on the Richter Scale.
State the primary effects of the Haiti eathquake • Minor tremors measured up to 5.0 on the Richter Scale. • 230,000 people were killed. • 2 million people were affected and 1.5 million were made homeless. • 180,000 homes were destroyed by the shaking. • The main prison was wrecked and 4000 prisoners escaped.
State the secondary effects of the Haiti earthquake • 1 in 5 people lost their jobs because building were destroyed. Haiti's largest clothing industry was affected. • Large number of deaths meant that hospitals and morgues became full, therefore bodies had to be brought and piled onto the streets. • The large number of bodies meant that diseases, especially Cholera, became a serious problem. • It was difficult getting aid to the area because of issues at the airport, and poor management of the situation. • The total damage bill was $11.5 billion.
State the immediate responses of the Haiti earthquake • Dominican Republic provided emergency water and medical supplies. • Emergency rescue teams arrived from a number of countries like Iceland. • Medical teams began treating the injured - temporary field hospitals were set up by organisations like the RED CROSS. • $100 million was given in aid by the USA and $330 million was given by the European Union.
State the long term responses of the Haiti Earthquake • 1 million people are still without houses after 1 year, so they still have to live in aid camp. • Temporary schools were created and new teachers were trained. • Water and sanitation eventually supplied for 1.7 million people. • Several thousand moved away from Port-au-Prince permanently.
Restless Earth Earthquake CASE STUDY KOBE MEDC Restless Earth Earthquake CASE STUDY KOBE MEDC
State the causes of the Kobe earthquake • Happened on 17th January 1995, in Kobe, Japan (a more economically developed country) that was 20km from the epicentre. • Kobe is a heavily populated urban area in Japan. • This earthquake was caused by destructive subduction - this involved the Philippine plate (oceanic crust) subducting below the Eurasian plate (continental crust). The earthquake measured 7.4 on the Richter Scale.
State the primary effects of the Kobe earthquake • 1,300 aftershocks • Approximately 6,000 people were killed. • 300,000 people were made homeless. • 102,000 homes were destroyed. • 35,000 people were injured. • Buildings and bridges collapsed despite their earthquake-proof design.
State the secondary effects of the Kobe earthquake • Widespread fires due to damaged gas mains. • It was difficult to get in to damaged roads. • Businesses like PANASONIC had to temporarily close. • The total damage bill was $220 billion. • 2 million people had no electricity.
State the immediate responses of the Kobe earthquake • Local rescue teams searched for survivors for 10 days through rubble. • Local fire department put out fires. • Major retailers provided free supplies, like Motorola provided free mobile phone use. • People were evacuated and emergency rations were provided. • Hospitals struggled to cope, so medical aid centres were set up. • Japan refused international aid.
State the long term responses for the Kobe earthquake • Many people moved away from the area permanently. • Jobs were created in the construction industries as part of a rebuilding programme. • Roads were back to normal within 6 months. • New buildings have earthquake-proof designs.
Restless Earth KOBE (MEDC) and HAITI (LEDC) earthquake comparison Restless Earth KOBE (MEDC) and HAITI (LEDC) earthquake comparison
State the primary differences similarities between the KOBE and HAITI earthquakes • HAITI: 230,000 people died, KOBE: 6000 people died. • HAITI: Buildings collapsed due to the non earthquake-resistant design, KOBE: Less buildings fell down because they were less vulnerable because of the earthquake resistant design. • HAITI: earthquake measured 5.0 on the Richter Scale, KOBE: earthquake measured 7.4 on the Richter Scale. • HAITI: 1.5 million people were made homeless, KOBE: 300,000 people were made homeless. • HAITI: 180,000 homes were destroyed, KOBE: 102,000 homes were destroyed.
State the primary effect similarities between the KOBE and HAITI earthquakes • Widespread fires were both triggered. • Many people were killed.
State the secondary differences between the KOBE and HAITI earthquakes • HAITI: total damage bill was 11.5 billion, KOBE: total damage bill was $220 billion. • HAITI: difficult getting aid to the situation, KOBE: had no problems with getting aid to situation. • HAITI: Large number of deaths meant that hospitals and morgues became full so bodies had to be piled onto the street - large amount meant that diseases, especially Cholera, were a main issue, KOBE: no issues. • HAITI: didn't have electricity, KOBE: 2 million had no electricity.
State the secondary similarities between the KOBE and HAITI earthquakes • Total damage bill was high. • Businesses were affected.
State the immediate response differences between the KOBE and HAITI earthquakes • HAITI: Emergency rescue teams arrived from a number of countries like Iceland, KOBE: they refused international help, but their own local rescue teams searched for survivors. • HAITI: Didn't have any company provisions, KOBE: Companies such as Motorola provided free mobile phone use.
State the immediate response similarities between the KOBE and HAITI earthquakes • Emergency water and food supplies were provided. • Medical help was set up/used. • Help was offered.
State the long term response differences between the KOBE and HAITI earthquakes • HAITI: Many people were made homeless after a year, therefore they still lived in aid camp, KOBE: no problems. • HAITI: Temporary schools were created and new teachers were trained, KOBE: Jobs were created as part of a rebuilding programme. • HAITI: New building were built, KOBE: New buildings were built with earthquake-proof design and roads were back to normal within 6 months.
State the long term response similarities between the KOBE and HAITI earthquakes • Both had temporary jobs of some sort created. • Many people permanently moved away. • Both had buildings re-built.
Why did the differences between the KOBE earthquake and the HAITI earthquake exist? • Kobe is wealthier, so they had the money for protection against earthquakes. • Kobe had more money to be able to recover quickly, also because they were able to pay for protection meaning less damage was caused in the first place. • Haiti was poorer therefore didn't have enough money to buy protections and were less equipped for earthquakes. • Haiti had less money to be able to recover, also because they couldn't pay for protection meaning there was more damage caused in the first place.
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