Flashcards by chamindri99, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by chamindri99 over 6 years ago


• Different plate boundaries. • The distribution of tectonic hazards • Impacts of Earthquakes • Reducing the impacts of Earthquakes • An example of a tectonic hazard event in an MEDC - Kobe • An example of a tectonic hazard event in an LEDC - Haiti

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Earthquake - Flashcards • Different plate boundaries.
• Eurasian Plate • Pacific Plate • Indo-Australian Plate • Antarctic Plate • North American Plate • Nazca Plate • South American Plate • African Plate • Philippine Plate • Cocos Plate • Caribbean Plate • Scotia Plate • Arabian Plate • Indian Plate • The distribution of tectonic hazards
• Constructive Margin - The two oceanic plates move away from each other, and magma comes up from the below, creating new land. • Destructive Margin - The oceanic crust hits the continental crust and sinks down underneath it. • Collision Plate Margin - The two continental plates hit each other and rise up to form mountains. • Conservative Margin - The two pieces of crust slide past each other and get stuck, causing earthquakes. • Impacts of Earthquakes Social Economical Environmental
Short term impacts: Social = • People may be killed or injured. • Homes may be destroyed. • Transport and communication links may be disrupted. • Water pipes may burst and water supplies may be contaminated. Economical = • Shops and business may be destroyed. • Looting may take place. • The damage to transport and communication links can make trade difficult. Environmental = • The built landscape may be destroyed. • Fires can spread due to gas pipe explosions. • Fires can damage areas of woodland. Landslides may occur. • Tsunamis may cause flooding in coastal areas. Long term impacts: Social = • Disease may spread. • People may have to be re-housed, sometimes in refugee camps. Economical = • The cost of rebuilding a settlement is high. • Investment in the area may be focused only on repairing the damage caused by the earthquake. Income could be lost. Environmental = • Important natural and human landmarks may be lost.
• Causes of an Earthquake • Tension is released from inside the crust. • When plates get stuck., pressure builds up. • When the pressure is eventually released, an earthquake tends to occur. Focus = Where the earthquake originates. Epicentre = Directly above the focus at ground level. Fault line = A fracture in the earth's crust that shows signs of movement. Seismic Waves = Vibrations generated from an earthquake.
• Measurement of earthquakes • The power of an earthquake is measured using a seismometer. • It plots these vibrations on a seismograph. • Richter Scale - Measures the magnitude (size) of the earthquake. • Mercalli Scale - Measures the severity of earthquakes effects (amount of damage caused).
• Factors affecting the impact of an earthquake • Distance from the epicentre - the effects of an earthquake are more severe at its centre. • The higher on the Richter scale, the more severe the earthquake is. • Level of development (MEDC or LEDC) - MEDCs are more likely to have the resources and technology for monitoring, prediction and response. • Population density (rural or urban area). The more densely populated an area, the more likely there are to be deaths and casualties. • Communication - accessibility for rescue teams. • Time of day influences whether people are in their homes, at work or travelling. • A severe earthquake at rush hour in a densely populated urban area could have devastating effects. • The time of year and climate will influence survival rates and the rate at which disease can spread.
• Reducing the impacts of Earthquakes Earthquake Resistant Buildings: These are built with deep foundations with rubber shock absorbers and concrete reinforced with steel. They are designed to twist and sway, have sprinkler systems and gas cut off valves. Emergency Plans: These are drawn up, and supplies such as bottled water, medicines, tinned food etc. are stockpiled by individuals or the local area. Earthquake Drills: These are held to practise what to do in the event of an earthquake taking place such as the one held in Japan on Sept 1st every year. Tsunami Warnings: As Tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean there are data collecting devices to give warnings of such an event. They are also being built in the Indian Ocean.
• An example of a tectonic hazard event in an MEDC - Kobe Destructive Margin = The Eurasian Plate (continental crust) collided with the Philippine Plate (oceanic crust), causing the Eurasian Plate to slide under the Philippine Plate. On 17th January 1995, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.2, struck Kobe, at 5.46 am.
Primary effects: • The ground moved horizontally by 50 cm and vertically by 1 m. • 35000 people injured. • 150 Buildings and bridges collapsed or were structurally damaged, despite their earthquake proof design. • A tidal wave reached a major town - S. - destroying 50 houses and 76 boats. • A huge landslide engulfed the town. • The main free-way that runs through the city collapsed - S. - killing 5 people. Secondary effects: • Buildings destroyed by fire when the gas mains fractured. • 316000 people left homeless and refugees moved into temporary housing. • 1130 people were admitted to hospital suffering from the effects of shock. • The collapsing of buildings killed 50 people in the centre of town. • People were forced to drink water from the streets, unaware that it is likely to be infected. Responds: Short term: • People were evacuated and emergency rations provided. • Rescue teams searched for survivors for 10 days. Long term: • Many people moved away from the area permanently. • Jobs were created in the construction industry as part of a rebuilding programme.
Lessons learnt / Precautions: • Precautions were put in place the following months and years. • It was the middle of winter so survivors had to be given refuge camps fast to avoid hypothermia. • Building zones: restricting the type of buildings allowed on reclaimed land. New housing has to be built on solid ground and use fire-resistance materials. • New building regulations were introduced (to make building more resistance to earthquakes). • An example of a tectonic hazard event in an LEDC - Haiti
Conservative Margin = The Caribbean and the North American plates (continental crust) slide past each other and gets stuck, causing an earthquake. On 12th January 2010, a magnitude 7 earthquake struck Haiti at 16:53 (4:53 pm) local time. The earthquake’s epicentre was 25 km west of Port-au-Prince, the capital.. Social impacts of the earthquake: • 3 million people were affected. • There was over 220,000 deaths. • 300,000 people were injured. • 1.3 million people were made homeless. • Several hospitals collapsed. Economic impacts of the earthquake: • 30,000 commercial buildings collapsed. • Many businesses were destroyed. • Damage was made to the main clothing industry. • The airport and port was damaged.
Haiti impacts: • The public telephone system was not available. • Roads were blocked with road debris and roads were broken. • Vital infrastructure necessary to respond to the disaster was severely damaged or destroyed. • 8 aftershocks in 2 hours struck Haiti, after the big earthquake, with magnitudes of 4.3 and 5.9. • 90% of the town's buildings had been destroyed. • 250,000 residences and 30,000 commercial buildings were severely damaged and needed to be demolished. Primary responses: • Neighbouring Dominican Republic provided emergency water and medical supplies as well as heavy machinery to help with search and rescue underneath the rubble, but most people were left to dig through the rubble by hand. • Emergency rescue teams arrived from a number of countries, e.g Iceland. • Medical teams began treating the injured – temporary field hospitals were set up by organisations like the International Committee of the Red Cross. • GIS was used to provide satellite images and maps of the area, to assist aid organisations. • People from around the world watched the news from Haiti on TV and through social networks. Many pledged money over their mobile phones. • UN troops and police were sent to help distribute aid and keep order.
Secondary responses: • Money was pledged by organisations and governments to assist in rebuilding, but only slow progress had been made after one year. • After one year, there were still 1,300 camps. • ‘Cash for work’ programs are paying Haitians to clear rubble. • Small farmers are being supported – so crops can be grown. • Schools are being rebuilt. Chamindri Edirisinghe 10JCA 20/12/2014
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