AS Psychology AQA Cognition

Flashcards by slezsis, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by slezsis over 6 years ago


Flashcards on AS Psychology AQA Cognition, created by slezsis on 01/17/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Sensory Memory Storage system in memory that holds information in an unprocessed form for a fraction of a second after the physical stimulus is no longer present.
Short Term Memory Stores information about events in the present or immediate past for short periods of time.
Long Term Memory Unlimited capacity system for storing information about events in the more distant past for long periods of time.
Encoding The way information is encoded and stored in memory to be processed by the memory system.
Capacity How much information can be held in the memory.
Duration How long a memory lasts before it is no longer available.
Capacity, duration and encoding form in the short term memory. Capacity = 7 +/- 2 items (Miller) Duration = 15-30 seconds Encoding: Mainly Acoustic
Capacity, duration and encoding form in the long term memory. Capacity = Potentially Unlimited Duration = Up to a Lifetime Encoding = Mainly Semantic
Peterson and Peterson Tested how long STM lasts when rehearsal is prevented. Participants were shown a consonant trigram and asked to count backwards in 3's to prevent rehearsal. They were asked to recall them after intervals of 3,6,9,12,15 or 18 seconds. 80% of trigrams were recalled after 3 seconds and progressively less recalled when the intervals lengthened.
Baddeley et al Attempted to demonstrate that pronunciation time rather than number of items recalled determines the capacity of STM. Participants were presented with 5 words on a screen and immediately after asked to write them down in serial order. Found patients could remember more short words than long and as many words as they could articulate in 2 seconds.
Baddeley (Encoding in STM) Explored the effects of acoustic and semantic encoding in the STM. Participants heard a list of 5 words drawn from one of 4 categories ( acoustically similar/dissimilar and semantically similar/dissimilar) and immediately after asked to recall in correct order. Found acoustically similar words harder to recall - STM relies more on the sound of words than their meaning.
Shepard 1967 (Duration of LTM) Showed participants 612 memorable pictures then one hour later showed them again amongst new pictures. Found 97% accuracy 1 hour later and 50% accuracy 4 months later. Suggests long term memories can be long lasting.
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