Cfe Higher Chemistry - Unit 2: Nature's Chemistry - Proteins

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Cfe Higher Chemistry - Unite 2: Nature's Chemistry - Proteins

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Question Answer
Which chemical elements make up proteins? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen and occasionally sulphur
How do plants gain their proteins for growth? They can absorb carbon, hydrogen and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. Nitrogen mus be obtained from the soil
How do animals obtain their proteins for growth? Through our food
Test for protein Heat in presence of soda lime. The gas released will turn moist pH paper blue.
What are proteins used for in the body? Cell Structures - membranes Hormones - insulin Body Structures - hair,nails Enzymes Muscle fibers Binding proteins - haemoglobin
How many functional groups does an amino acid have? 2 - amino group (NH2) and a carboxl group (COOH)
How can amino acids link up to form a chain? Because they all have 2 functional groups which can combine to make an amide link in a condensation reaction.
What is a peptide? a unit made up of a small chain of amino acids (tripeptide - 3 amino acids)
What are two alternative names for proteins? Polyamides and polypeptides
How many amino acid molecules are in a typical protein? 2-3 hundred
What is this? Amide link
Why are some amino acids known as "essential"? Because we cannot make them in out bodies, they must be consumed through our food.
What are the 4 steps of protein hydrolysis? Protein foods Breaking down proteins Absorbing amino acids bulilding proteins
Describe the Breaking down of proteins Acids and enzymes in the digestive system help break down the peptide
Describe the Absorbing of amino acids While protein molecules are too large to pass through the walls of the gut, individual amino acids are small enough o they pass through the wall and are absorbed into the bloodstream.
Describe the building of proteins Amino acids are joined together in a different sequence, changing the final protein
What determines the type of protein built? the sequence of amino acids
Which enzyme begins the digestion of proteins? pepsin
Word equation for hydrolysis of protein Protein + Water -> Amino Acids
How are proteins hydrolysed? Peptide links are identified and broken water is intorduced amino acids are built
How are amino acids hydrolysed in a lab? Through reflux with concentrated hydrochloric acid for several hours
How can Hydrolysed proteins be analysed? Through chromatography
What are the two types of protein? Fibrous - long, fibre like structure, sheets Globular - spiral chains, 3d appearance
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