Sociology Chapter 1 Exam 1

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Flashcards on Sociology Chapter 1 Exam 1, created by jacobschlicher on 01/26/2015.

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Question Answer
verstehen -concept in Weber's sociology -refers to understanding social behavior from the point of view of those engaged in it.
Social Facts -indicate social patterns that are external to individuals. Customs and social values are an example -Emile Durkheim -"Though they exist outside individuals, nonetheless pose constraints on individual behavior
functionalism -origins in the work of Durkheim -interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole -conceptualizes society as more than the sum of its component parts
Positivism -system of thought in which scientific observation and description is considered the highest form of knowledge. -the modern scientific method grew out of this.
Microsoiology - theoretical frameworks that center on face-to-face social interaction
Feminist Theory - Analyses of women and men in society intended to improve woman's lives
Symbolic Interaction Theory - a theoretical perspective claiming that people act towards things because of the meaning things have for them
Auguste Comte -1798-1857 -coined the term sociology -believed that just as science had discovered the laws of nature, sociology could discover the laws of human social behavior and thus help solve society's problems
Definition of situation the subjective interpretations that form social bonds
social construction the idea that symbolic meanings are attached to things that make up society
Thomas's Dictum -people behave based on what they BELIEVE, not just what is objectively true -part of the symbolic interaction theory
Robert Merton - 1910-2003 - suggested that human behavior has both manifest & latent functions - saw that social practices often have consequences for society that are not immediately apparent, not necessarily the same as the stated purpose -functionalism
Emile Durkheim - 1858 - 1917 - created the term social facts - major contribution was the discovery of the social bases of human behavior - proposed that society could be known through the discovery and analysis of social facts
Conflict Theory a theoretical perspective that emphasizes the role of power and coercion in producing social order
debunking -looking behind the facades of everyday life -Berger called the "unmasking tendency" of sociology
sociology the study of human behavior in society
issues -affect large numbers of people and have their origins in institutional arrangements and history of a society -shape the context within which troubles arise
troubles - privately felt problems that spring from events or feelings in a person's life
Sociological imagination - the ability to see the societal patterns that influence the individual as well as groups of individuals - permits us to see that something as seemingly personal as how you look arises from a social context, not just individual behavior
empirical refers to something that is based on careful and systematic observation
Enlightenment period in the 18th or 19th century Europe characterized by faith in the ability of human reason to solve society's problems
Organic metaphor refers to the similarity early sociologists saw between society and other organic systems
manifest functions stated and intentional goals of social behavior
Latent functions goals of human behavior which are neither stated nor intended
social change the alteration of social interaction, social institutions, stratification systems, and elements of culture over time
C. Wright Mills - Book called "The Sociological Imagination (1959) - he wrote that the task of sociology was to understand the relationship between individuals and the society in which they live.
Max Weber (pronounced "vay-ber") - 1864 - 1920 - developed a multidimensional analysis of society - political, cultural, and economic -verstehen -believed that to understand social behavior, one had to understand the meaning that a behavior had for people -major contribution: definition of social action
social action behavior to which people give meaning
social darwinism the idea that society evolves to allow the survival of the fittest
social institution an established and organized system of social behavior with a recognized purpose
social structure the patterns of social relationships and social institutions that make up society
society interaction behavior between 2 or more people that is given meaning
macrosociology -theories that strive to understand society as a whole -Durkheim, Marx, and Weber
Diversity - broad concept that includes studying group differences in society opportunities, the shaping of social factors, the formation of group and individual identity and the process of social change - also includes the study of different cultural orientations, but is NOT exclusively about culture
Chicago School -style of sociological thinking - characterized by thinkers who were interested in how society shaped the mind and identity of people - ex. George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley. They thought of society as a human laboratory where they could observe and understand human behavior in order to address human needs
Hariet Marineau -wrote two books; Society In America (1837) How to Observe Morals and Manners (1838)
Karl Marx - 1818 - 1883 - considered all of society to be shaped by economic forces - analyzed capitalism as an economic system with enormous implications for how society is organized, in particular how inequality between groups stems from the economic organization of society
Robert Park - interested in how urban neighborhoods are defined by racial groups. Having started his career as a journalist, he became an influential sociologist by recognizing urban problems due to city boundaries based on social class and race. - continues to be a main focus of sociological research
Jane Addams - research focused on people who were in need; it has always been done with intent to help improve the lives of the poor, immigrants, and other disadvantaged groups - only sociologist to ever win a Nobel Peace Prize
\lexis de Tocqueville - 1805 - 1859 -Thought that democratic values and the belief in human equality positively influenced American social institutions. Felt that the tyranny of king was replaced by the "tyranny of majority" (ability of the majority to impose its will on others) -felt that Americans had little independence of mind, making them anxious about their social class position and self-centered
Georg Simmel -1858-1918 - interested in the role of strangers in social groups
Ida B. Wells-Barnett -Born a slave and had a different upbringing from many other sociologists of his/her time. -was an active crusader against lynching -My writing is largely on the status of African Americans and women's rights in the US -work also focuses on getting women the right to vote
Talcott Parsons - 1902-1979 -in his view, all parts of a social system are interrelated, with different parts of society having different basic functions -functionalist
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