Exam#1 Biological Lab

Constance Randall
Flashcards by Constance Randall, updated 3 months ago



Resource summary

Question Answer
What is a covalent bond? Each atom gives one electron so that the atoms share a pair of electrons.
What are the 4 macromolecules? Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Amino acids
What is a monomer? A covalent bond linked through dehydration
What are the 4 molecules of a living organism? Carbon Nitrogen Hydrogen Oxygen
How do you describe a carbon atom? They can form chains/rings. They can be single, double, or triple They can bind together to make new elements.
What is a polymer? Water being removed from one molecule to create a larger one.
What is polymerization? Monomers joining together to form a polymer.
What are the 3 functional groups? Carboxyl (COOH) Hydroxyl (-OH) Amino group (NH2)
What's in a carbohydrate? Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen
What is a polysaccharide? Multi-chained polymers.
What is glycogen? Simple sugars stored in a polysaccharide.
What is cellulose? A building block for cell walls of plants. It's a complex-carbohydrate for plants.
What is Fructose? cyclic glucose rearranged Penta-sugar
What is Sucrose? Glucose+Fructose
What is maltose? Glucose+Glucose
What is a Lipid? Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen BUT is INSOLUBLE in WATER
What is a Triglyceride? A glycerol head joined with 3 fatty acid chains. Long time energy storage.
What is a Saturated Fat? A fatty acid chain of carbon atoms joined by single covalent bonds
What is Unsaturated Fat? A fatty acid chain of carbon atoms joined by DOUBLE bonds.
What is a characteristic of Saturated fat? Solid at room temperature Has a rigid barrier Is not permeable
What is a characteristic of a Unsaturated fat? Oily not solid Selective barrier can let water/ other solutions through.
What is a protein? A large polymer(s) that aid in movement and structural support.
What is an Enzyme? Proteins that increase the rate of a chemical reaction.
Describe Amino Acids: Contain a Carboxyl (COOH) group and Amino group(NH2)
How many types of amino acids are there? 20
What is a peptide? When two amino acids are joined together through dehydration
What is a polypeptide? Multiple peptides linked together as a chain.
What is a Nucleic Acid? Polymers made of : Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus
What are Nucleotides? Monomers that form the links of a nucleic acid chain.
What are the 3 parts of a Nucleotide? Penta-sugar phosphate group (sugar) Nitrogenous base
What are Purines? Adenine & Guanine
What are Pyrimidines? Cytosine & Thymine
What are the 4 nucleotides? Adenine Thymine guanine Cytosine
What is DNA? DeoxyriboNucleicAcid Double helix
What is RNA? RiboNucleicAcid Single strand
What is ATP? Adenosine TriphosPhate
What is ADP? Aenosine DiphosPhate
What is the difference between ATP & ADP? ATP: Unstable bond, consist of 3 phosphates bonded together. ADP: Stable bond, releases energy, aids in cell activities.
What is the Empirical formula for Glucose? C6-H12-O6
What is the empirical formula for Fructose? C6-H12-O6
What is the empirical formula for Sucrose? C12-H22-O11
What is the empirical formula for Maltose? C12-H22-O11
What is an Isomer? Molecules that share the same empirical formula but have different shapes.
What are some examples of Isomers? 1.) Glucose and Fructose 2.) Sucrose,Maltose and Lactose
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