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PDHPE (Sports Medicine) Flashcards on Untitled_5, created by louisa.slinger4825 on 09/29/2013.

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Question Answer
Define direct and indirect injuries Direct injuries occur from an external force causing injury at the point of contact e.g. a footballer breaking his shoulder from a tackle. Indirect injuries are usually from an intrinsic force, they can occur from inadequate warm up e.g. sprained ankle
Define soft and hard tissue injuries Soft tissue injuries include any damage to the muscle, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, skin, blood vessels, organs and nerves. Hard tissue injuries include all injuries to bones and teeth, they are generally more serious than soft tissue injuries.
Define an overuse injury Overuse injuries result from intense or unreasonable use of joints or body area. Examples of overuse injuries include shin splints, tendonitis and stress fractures.
Outline a tear A tear occurs when tissue is excessively stretched or severed, the 2 types are sprains and strains
Identify a sprain and a strain Sprains arise from stretching or tearing of a ligament they are classified by 1st degree, 2nd degree and 3rd degree. Strains occur when a muscle or tendon is torn, they are classified in the same way as sprains.
Define contusions Contusions are caused by a sudden blow to the body (bruise). They vary in intensity, some are superficial to the skin, some cause the bone to bruise. They interrupt the blood flow to surrounding tissues and a haematoma (blood tumour) form as a blood clot in the connective tissue membrane.
Define skin abrasions Skin abrasions occur in games where the player may fall on a hard surface. They cause pain and shallow bleeding as a result of skin scraping. Dirt and foreign material may become embedded. Gentle cleansing and sterilisation is important.
Define lacerations and blisters A laceration is a wound where the flesh has incurred an irregular tear, pressure may need to be applied to prevent bleeding. Blisters are caused by a collection of fluid below or within the epidermal layer of the skin giving rise t intense pain. They can contain clear liquid or even blood.
Outline the function of the inflammatory response When the body's soft tissues are injured the reaction occurring is the inflammatory response. This self healing process may last up to 3 or 4 days after the injury occurs. The main functions of this response are to protect the injured tissue from further damage, remove dead cells that have been injured and enable new tissue to grow.
Outline the process of the inflammatory response 1. Inflammatory stage (3-4 days) pain, swelling, redness, loss of function and mobility, leakage of fluid causing swelling and the formation of many blood cell vessels to promote healing. 2. Repair and regenerate stage (3-6 weeks) elimination of debris (fluid), formation of new fiber's, production of scar tissue. 3. Remodelling stage (6 weeks-months) Replacement tissue that needs to strengthen and develop: type of remodelling varies. Excessive exercise too early causes further damage, no exercise allows scar tissue to form.
Outline the RICER management procedure Rest - to prevent bleeding into the injury prevent further injury, place in a comfortable position with the injury elevated and supported. Ice - to reduce pain, blood flow, swelling, spasm, place a towel with crushed ice wrapped around the injury for 20 mins every hour for up to 4 days. Compression - decreases bleeding, swelling, wrap an elastic bandage over the injured area, covering below and above the injury at the time of injury and periodically for 24 hours. Elevation - decreases bleeding, swelling and throbbing, raise the injured area above the level of the heart with a support (pillow) whenever possible, during the day for the next 2-3 days. Referral - to understand the nature and extent of the injury, seek guidance for rehabilitation as soon as possible.
Outline the immediate treatment of skin injuries RICER - tears, sprains, strains, contusions. For skin abrasions and lacerations clean the wound with saline or running water, apply a non-stick bandage. For blisters pierce the blister, express the fluid, cover with sterile, non adhesive dressing apply padding and tape.
Outline fractures There are 2 broad classifications: - simple (closed) when the bone breaks but is still under the skin - compound (open) when the bone breaks and protrudes through the skin. Other types of fractures includes green stick, comminuted, depressed, impacted, oblique, longitudinal, spiral, transverse and serrated.
Define dislocations Dislocations is the displacement of a bone at a joint, they cause pain and are apparent because of the deformity they cause. Technically it isn't a hard tissue injury as the bone is only displaced - not damaged.
How do you manage fractures? - DRSABC - control any bleeding - treat shock - use of splint and bandage to immobilise the area - seek immediate medical assistance
How do you manage dislocations? - secure with a splint, immobilise the injury - ice, elevation and support using a bandage - seek immediate medical attention - don't attempt to relocate the bone
Define immobilisation Immobilisation restricts movement in the injured area by using splints and bandages.
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