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A-Level AS AQA SOCIOLOGY (Flashcards) Flashcards on REASONS FOR GIRLS IMPROVEMENTS IN ACHIEVEMENT SCLY2, created by ashiana121 on 05/19/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Since what decade has girls achievement improved to a point where they now outperform boys? 80's
In key stage 1-3, in what subjects is the gap between girls and boys achievement narrower? Math and sciences
Is the gap at a level wider or narrower at A-level compared to GCSE? Narrower
At GCSE, girls are around __ percentage points ahead of boys 10
More _____ go on to higher education Girls
What are the 4 external factors linked to the improvement in girls achievement? - Influence of feminism - Girls changing perceptions & ambitions - Changes in the family - Changes in women's employment
How do feminists have an impact on womens rights? Through campaigns to win changes in the law eg. equal pay, outlawing rape, divorce etc
Feminists ideas are likely to have affected girl' self-image and aspirations. What does this mean as a result? Girls are more motivated to do well in education
Who did a study of working-class girls in the 1970's and 1990's? Sharpe
What did Sharpe find? Girls priorities had changed 1970s - love, marriages, husbands, children, jobs 1990's - careers, independence
Who found that girls now had high career aspirations and so needed educational qualifications? Francis
What have the 6 main changes in the family been since 1970? - Increased divorce rate (40% of marriages) - More lone parent families (90% female headed) - More cohabitation - Decrease in 1st marriages - More women staying single - Smaller families
What have these changes meant for women? Given them more need and more opportunity to be economically independent - which gives them motivation to do well at school and gain qualifications
What has resulted in more employment opportunities for women? Expansion of the service sector
What has womens employments risen to and from since the 50's? Under half of married women to 75% today
Give 2 examples of laws which have given women more employment rights Equal Pay Act - 1970 Sex Discrimination Act - 1975
The pay gap between men and women has almost halved since when? 1975
What do changes like this result in in terms of girls achievement? Girls have more incentive to see their futures in terms of paid work - this creates an incentive for them to gain qualifications
What are the 6 internal factors sociologists see as important in explaining girls improved performance? - Equal opportunities policies - Role models - Coursework - Stereotypes in learning materials - Teacher attention - Selection and league tables
How has feminism affected the education system? The belied that boys and girls are equally capable and should have the same opportunities is widely accepted and has become a social norm in education
Give some examples of policies which have aimed to give boys and girls equal opportunities GIST & WISE National Curriculum -1988
What do these policies result in? Meritocracy
Now that girls have more equal opportunities than the past they are able to... Do better
What does the fact that there are more female teachers and head teachers than the past provide for girls? A positive, pro-educational role model
What does the presence of many female teachers also do to the learning environment? Feminises it
What does this do? Encourages girls to see school as part of the female gender domain
What does this mean as a result? Girls see educational success as a desirable female characteristic and are motivated to do well
Who argues that girls do better than boys in coursework? Mitsos and Brown
Why do they argue this? Girls are more conscientious and better organised
Girls ______ earlier Mature
Girls can ___________ for longer Concentration
Who found that girls achievement improved rapidly when GCSE's were introduced (1988) due coursework being a major part of most subjects? Gorard
What have past studies of textbooks and other learning materials found? They used to under-represent females and portrayed them as subordinate to males Showed them in domestic roles Showed them unsuited to certain subjects e.g science
Since the 1980's what has happened to these sexist images? They've been removed and replaces with more positive images of females
How does this impact girls? Impacts girls perceptions of what women can do and thus may raise their aspirations
In who's earlier studies was it found that teacher spent more time interacting with boys than girls? Spender 1983
Which three recent studies have suggested that girls may benefit more than girls? Francis French & French Swann
Who's study found that: - Boys dominate class discussions - Girls prefer groups work and and are better at listening and cooperating - This favours teachers - As a result teachers respond more positively to girls and give them more encouragement Swann
Who's study found that teachers gave boys and girls equal academic attention, but boys more attention overall due to more punishments? French & French
What did Francis find? Even though boys received more attention, they were disciplined more harshly and felt teachers picked on them and had lower aspirations of them
What types policies have lead to competition between school? Give an example Marketisation policies e.g exam league tables
What does this mean schools try to do and in order to what? Recruit more able students in order to boost their results and league table position
Why are girls more attractive to schools? Because they are generally more successful in education
How many times more likely are boys to be excluded compared to girls? 4 times more likely
What do generalised ideas of boys misbehaviour and low-achievement mean? Schools see them as 'liability students' who will give them a bad image and produce poor results
How has selection affected girls achievement? Girls more likely to get places in successful schools - girls get a better education - girls achieve more
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