Taonga Luwe
Flashcards by Taonga Luwe, updated more than 1 year ago
Taonga Luwe
Created by Taonga Luwe almost 6 years ago


A2 Psychology Unit 3- AQA

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Social psychology theory of aggression: Social learning theory A part of the behavioural approach, SLT believes that aggression is a result of the observation and imitation of a role model displaying the aggressive behaviour. Four processes need to be present in order for social learning to occur- attention, retention, reproduction and motivation. The observer needs to have a level of self-efficiency (self-confidence) in their ability to replicate the behaviour.
Social psychology theory of aggression: Social learning theory study BANDURA, ROSS AND ROSS: 72 male and female participants were divided into an aggressive and non-aggressive condition. Children within each condition watched either a same-sex or a different sex role model behaving in specific ways towards the doll. Aggressive role models would use verbal and physical violence on the doll whereas non-aggressive models would behave well. Results found that the children in the aggressive conditions behaved more violently than those in the non-violent condition. Boys showed more aggression if the role model was male and showed a little more aggression in general than girls who observed either a same or opposite sex role model CHARLTON: Conducted a longitudinal natural experiment into levels of aggression after the introduction of TV on the island of St. Helena in Fiji in 1995. No increase in level of aggression was found
Social psychology theory of aggression: Deindividuation theory Deindividuation is the loss of one's sense of identity and is generally brought on by being part of a majority group or hiding behind a uniform or a mask. This theory believes that the loss of one's identity leads to a lack of inhibitions and therefore a change in normal standards of behaviour
Social psychology theory of aggression: Deindividuation theory studies ZIMBARDO (stanford prison experiment): 24 participants assigned to either a prisoner or prison guard role in a mock prison. The guards lost their normal sense of identity and behaved appalling towards the prisoners, humiliating them both emotionally and physically. All participants were tested for mental health prior to the experiment and all were considered to be fit for the purpose of the study REHM: Assigned either an orange uniform or no uniform (normal clothes) to German school children who were playing a handball match together. Results found that the children who wore the uniform consistently played more aggressively than those who wore their normal clothes MULLEN: Analysed newspaper articles about lynching which happened in the USA between 1899-1946. Results found that the larger the number in the lynch mob, the more viciously the victims were killed
Social psychology theory of aggression: evaluation -Supporting evidence for both theories increases their validity and reliability. Can also be applied to a number of real life examples and used in a variety of different fields e.g. as part of a defence in a law court -Both explanations focus on the role of nurture- ignores the role of biology completely -Despite not being deterministic, both theories could be criticised as being softly deterministic as they ignore the role of biology -SLT does not account for free will as it believes that if the four process of attention, retention, reproduction and motivation are present that replication of the behaviour is very likely to occur -Other variable could have played a part in the research findings which have been used to support the theories e.g. heat or weather in Rehm's study. This reduces the scientific value of the research and potentially undermines the theory -Deindividuation does not always cause violence- many large groups get together and do not display any form of aggression
Institutional aggression: Importance model IRWIN AND CRESSEY: This model claims that individuals bring their own social history and personality traits with them into an institutional environment. These traits influence the way in which the individual behaves in a set environment and are known as interpersonal factors
Institutional aggression: Importance model study HARER AND STEFFENMEIER: Data from 58 US prisons was collected. The researches found that black inmates has significantly higher rates of violent behaviour but lower rates of alcohol and drug-related misconduct that white inmates. These pattens are parallel racial differences in these behaviours in US society
Institutional aggression: Deprivation model PATERLINE AND PETERSON: Institutional aggression occurs due to the stressful and oppressive situation of the institution and not the personal characteristics which people bring in with them. It is the situation, not to disposition that causes the problem. For example, in prisons there is often overcrowding, lack of personal space and very little natural light which can lead to an individual feeling oppressed and frustrated/violent
Institutional aggression: Deprivation model studies Supporting- McCorkle Overcrowding, lack of privacy and lack of meaningful activity all significantly influence peer violence in prisons Contradictions- Nijman Increased personal space does not decrease levels of violence displayed by patients in psychiatric institutions
Institutional aggression: evaluation -Research and models can be applied to real-life situations and have been useful in reducing violence in institutions such as prisons -Models and research takes a psychological approach- focuses on the role of the environment in shaping people into aggressive beings- ignores the role of biology eg. neural mechanisms -The importation model does take into account personality traits which could be argues to be partially biological- even if this id not explicitly stated in the model
Neural mechanisms in aggression Serotonin is a neurotransmitter- low levels of serotonin appear to be linked with violent crime The link between serotonin and aggression is tested through comparing levels of serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA in participant's cerebrospinal fluid to a history of aggressive behaviour or actual aggression If serotonin plays a key role in aggression, researchers would expect to see reduced levels of 5-HIAA in more aggressive patients
Neural mechanisms in aggression: studies STANLEY: compared the cerebrospinal fluid concentration of 5-HIAA in aggressive and non-aggressive psychiatric patients. They found that aggressive participants had lower levels of 5-HIAA than the non-aggressive participants DAVIDSON, PUTNAM AND LARSON: suggest that serotonin may provide an inhibitory function- in other words, moderate to high levels of serotonin would prevent high aggression levels. The researchers found that tame domestic pets gave higher levels of serotonin because they do not need to be aggressive. Wild animals and rats given drugs or designed to have low levels of serotonin however are more aggressive LINNOILA AND VIRKKUNEN: low levels of serotonin are liked to impulsivity and explosive acts of violence
Neural mechanisms in aggression: evaluation -Research into this field takes a reductionist and deterministic approach to study aggression as it is likely that more than just serotonin is the cause of aggression -Many of the serotonin studies merely show an association between serotonin activity and aggression. It is not possible to say that low serotonin levels cause aggression and doing so should be advised against as it may come with a number of associated issues e.g. telling someone they are more likely to be aggressive may lead to this behaviour showing through -Neural mechanisms are likely to increase the risk of aggression, but only when combined with environmental factors e.g. abuse (nature vs. nurture)
Hormonal mechanisms in aggression Testosterone is a male sex hormone (androgen) which has been heavily implicated in aggressive behaviour Basal model of testosterone- testosterone causes a change in a person's dominance. The more testosterone someone has, the more competitive and dominant they will become. Dominance here is the result of testosterone Reciprocal model of testosterone- this is the reverse of the basal model of testosterone and suggests that testosterone levels are influenced by changes in the level of dominance that an individual has
Hormonal mechanisms in aggression: studies WANGER: Conducted correlational research using mice. The researchers found that overall levels of aggression in mice that had been castrated tend to reduce. Giving a castrated mouse testosterone leads to aggression MAZUR AND BOOTH: Support the basal model of testosterone. They conducted a meta analysis of research into testosterone and found that men with higher levels of testosterone are more likely to divorce or remain single, be arrested for major offences, buy/sell stolen property and use weapons in fights MAZUR AND BOOTH: Support for the reciprocal model of testosterone. They studied 2,100 air force veterans over a ten year period. The participants were given 4 medical exams over ten years. Results found that the participants testosterone levels varied- reducing when they married and increasing upon divorce SIMPSON: Testosterone is only one factor that influence aggression and the effects of environmental stimuli have at times been found to correlate more strongly
Hormonal mechanisms in aggression: evaluation -Research in this field is reductionist and deterministic -Correlations doesn't mean causation -Hormonal mechanisms are likely to increase the risk of aggression, but only when combined with environmental factors e.g. abuse (nature vs. nurture)
Genetic factors in aggression: XXY Karotype We are all usually born with 46 chromosomes but some of us are born with 47 There is a link between extra chromosomes and aggression
Genetic factors in aggression: XXY Karotype studies COURT-BROWN: Individuals with XXY are more aggressive THEILGAARD: Researched personality traits between XY, XXY and XXY males. Not possible to conclude that additional Y-chromosome causes aggression
Genetic factors in aggression: Selective breeding A more aggressive creature can be produced through the isolation and manipulation of aggressive genes
Genetic factors in aggression: Selective breeding study CAIRNS: Selectively bred mice for aggression, created highly aggressive male and female mice who displayed aggression at abnormal points during lifespan (e.g. during middle age not in youth)
Genetic factors in aggression: Twin studies Genes appear to be an important factor in aggressiveness Same environment therefore biology must play a part
Genetic factors in aggression: Twin studies RUTTER: Dz twins have a concordance rate between 13-22% whereas Mz have a concordance rate of between 26-51% MEDNICK: studied the criminal records of Danish children adopted outside of their biological family between 1924 and 1947. Having a criminal biological father increased the risk of criminality, but the highest risk was for those who had criminal biological father and criminal adoptive father
Genetic factors in aggression: evaluation -Link between aggression and XXY unclear- more speculation than science -Genes are likely to increase the risk of aggression, but only when combined with environmental factors e.g. abuse (nature vs nurture) -Generalising issues from animal research to humans -Scientific method of study- increased validity and reliability -Heritability studies provide support for genetic contribution to aggressiveness but are limited as they have only studied criminality- not actual aggression. Not all crime is violent -Nature vs. Nurture -Deterministic- genetics do not mean that you will behave in a set way- ignores free will -Reductionist
Evolutionary explanation of human aggression Evolutionary psychologists believe that since the EEA, human behaviour has pretty much been static-in other words, they believe that a universal set of psychological mechanisms affect every living person and these vary very minutely from person to person Evolutionary psychologists believe that aggression is a result of sexual competition. Females have a high parental investment and when this is threatened they are likely to become aggressive. The same can be said for male- particularly if they feel as through their paternity is in question
Evolutionary explanation of human aggression: influence of infidelity on aggressive behaviour The act of infidelity triggers an emotional state within the individual as it is a perceived threat to the current relationship. Acting aggressively in response to this threat is one way in which to reduce or eliminate the threat being posed. Men and women will behave aggressively for different reasons. For women it is the dear of them losing their provider/stability and for men it is focused around threatened paternity
Evolutionary explanation of human aggression: influence of infidelity on aggressive behaviour The evolutionary explanation would explain acts of aggression arising from jealously as a way in which to exert one's desire to keep their mate. Males are more likely to show aggression towards someone who poses a sexual threat whereas women are more likely to react towards an emotional threat
Evolutionary explanation of human aggression: influence of infidelity on aggressive behaviour studies BUSS: argued that the best way to deal with a treat brought on by jealously or suspected/actual infedelity is through a display of aggressive behaviour BRUNK: Female tend to get aggressive over the lack of emotional support whereas men get aggressive due to suspicion and jealousy CANARY: Suggests that couples who have relationship conflicts often report that the anger and aggression which occurs is due to a feeling of jealousy between partners HADEN AND HOJJAT: Conducted research into sexual jealously between young men and women. In two separate studies they found that men were more likely than women to consider aggressive behaviour towards someone who appeared to be a rival. They also found that women tended to be more behaviourally and emotionally reactive
Evolutionary explanation of human aggression: evaluation -Evolutionary explanations are notoriously difficult to test-they have face validity and evidence can be provided for them but as they are post-hoc and it is impossible to travel back in time to test this theory, the extent to which it is accurate remains unknown. This reduces the scientific value of the explanation -Explanation is deterministic as it believes that we have all evolved to be aggressive given certain triggers e.g. perceived infidelity -Reductionism- reduce behaviours down to biologically inherited mechanisms instead of viewing the interaction with nature and nurture as key -Parental Investment Theory- can be used to support much of what is claimed here by the evolutionary explanation. You can use the strength of this theory to help support research and/or theories into the influence of infidelity and jealously on aggression
Evolutionary explanation of group display in humans (sport and warfare) The evolutionary explanation of aggression believes that humans display aggression in group in order to gain access to resources. Resources gained through group displays of aggression include land, women and money. The acquisition of these resources is important for the survival of a group and to ensure the continued existence of future generations. The explanation also argues that displays of aggression towards potential threats are one of the best ways in which to secure the resources which are much desired by groups
Evolutionary explanation of group display in humans: sport Group display is a common response to xenophobia - a fear of the unknown. Acting aggressively towards an unknown threat will maximise the chance of the group scaring away any threats or minimising the chance of being attacked
Evolutionary explanation of group display in humans: Sport studies EVANS AND ROWE: conducted research into forty football matches which occurred between both club sides and national sides. The researcher found that there were a greater number of violent incidents and aggressive behaviour reported when national side matches were played FOLDESI- Racist conduct of core extremist supports led to an increase of spectator violence in general and xenophobic outbursts were particular. The usual targets were Gypsies, Jews and Russians WILSON: Xenophobia can be seen in almost every group of animals that display higher forms of social organisation, suggesting that it is an evolved response designed to keep us safe
Evolutionary explanation of group display in humans: warfare Group displays of aggression in war would have many evolutionary benefits including the expansion of one's own in-group, the acquisition of desired resources and the opportunity to become a larger and more powerful group which is less likely to be attacked by the opposition
Evolutionary explanation of group display in humans: warfare studies CHIGNON: Conducted a longitudinal study of the Yanomamo tribe who have a long history of war with other tribes. He found that the married male member of the tribe were far more likely to have been to war and have killed members off the opposing tribe, suggesting that displays of aggression are perceived as an attractive behaviour in a mate. Through studying the tribe, he discovered that war had many benefits such as the acquisition of land and of women who could then be used to expand the members of the existing tribe
Evolutionary explanation of group display in humans: warfare points to consider LEHMANN AND FELDMAN: If stronger and more aggressive men are the ones passing on their genes, an increasingly aggressive species should emerge. But is there evidence for this? CASSIDLY: Investigated the month-long Hindu festival 'Mela' which sees up to 50 million people attending over the month. The crowds displayed the complete opposite of what much research tells us, showing increased generosity, support and orderly behaviour
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