Unit 1: Sustaining Ecosystems

Alyssa Conte
Flashcards by Alyssa Conte, updated more than 1 year ago
Alyssa Conte
Created by Alyssa Conte about 6 years ago
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grade 10 science 10 Flashcards on Unit 1: Sustaining Ecosystems, created by Alyssa Conte on 06/06/2015.

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Question Answer
biome large area of the biosphere that has characteristic climate, plants, animals and soil
biotic living
abiotic non-living
elevation the height above sea level
adaptation a characteristic that allows an organism to better survive and reproduce
structural adaptation a physical feature that helps an organism survive
physiological adaptation a physical or chemical event inside the body of an organism that allows it to survive
behavioural adaptation a behaviour that helps an organism to survive
divisions of life on earth in order from largest to smallest: biosphere biome ecosystem habitat
nutrients minerals that organisms need to live and grow
photosynthesis a chemical reaction that converts solar energy into chemical energy usable by plants
ecological hierarchy + the order the order of relationships in an ecosystem: ecosystem community population organism
symbiosis a relationship in which two different organisms live together in close association
commensalism one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected
mutualism both organisms benefit
parasitism one organism benefits and the other organism is harmed
host the organism that a parasite lives in or on
niche the role an organism has within an ecosystem
competition an interaction that occurs between two or more organisms when they need the same resource in the same location at the same time
predation the relationship where one organism (the predator) kills and consumes another organism (the prey)
producers produce food in the form of carbohydrates
consumers organisms that feed on other organisms
decomposers organisms such as bacteria and fungi that change wastes and dead organisms into usable nutrients for other organisms
detrivores consumers that eat dead organisms and waste matter
herbivores eat only plants
carnivores meat eater
omnivores both plant and animal eaters
trophic levels
pyramid of numbers shows number of organisms at each trophic level
pyramid of biomass shows number of organisms at each trophic level multiplies by their mass
pyramid of energy shows amount of energy available at each trophic level
carbon store a.k.a carbon sink, is a short or long term accumulation of carbon
where are short-term carbon stores? -aquatic and terrestrial organisms -carbon dioxide -atmosphere -top layer of the ocean
where are long-term carbon stores? -middle & lower ocean layer dissolved in CO2 -coal -oil -gas deposits in land -ocean sediments
carbon exchange how carbon is moved through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
cellular respiration the process where both plants and animals release carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere
carbonate carbon & oxygen dissolved in ocean water
fossil fuels oil, gas and coal
legumes plants such as peas and beans that can fix atmospheric nitrogen
nitrification 2 step process that occurs when nitrifying bacteria convert ammonium into nitrate
denitrification the process where nitrogen is returned into the atmosphere
where does nitrogen fixation occur? atmosphere, soil & water
where is phosphorus found? phosphates found in rocks & ocean floor
geological uplift the process of mountain building where earth's crust folds and deeply buried rock layers rise and are exposed
bioaccumulation build up of synthetic and organic chemicals in living organisms
keystone species species that greatly affect population numbers and health of an ecosystem
biomagnification process where chemicals accumulate and become more concentrated at each trophic level
DDT pesticide introduced to control mosquito populations
heavy metals metals that accumulate and are toxic to animals at low concentrations
3 heavy metals lead, cadmium, mercury
bioremediation the use of micro-organisms or plants to help clean up chemical pollution
natural selection process where the best adapted members of a species will survive and reproduce
adaptive radiation members of a species adapt to a variety of habitats
ecological succession changes that take place over time in the types of organisms that live in an area
primary succession occurs where no soil exists
pioneer species first organisms to survive and reproduce
lichens examples of a mutualistic relationship between fungus and algae
secondary succession occurs after a major disturbance
climax community a mature community that continues to change over time
ecological stability populations are able to return to their previous state when disturbed
estuaries coastal bodies of water where rivers or streams meet the ocean
deforestation forests are logged or cleared for human use and not replanted
soil degradation soil becomes less healthy and able to support life
native species plants and animals the naturally inhabit an area
foreign species organisms that people intentionally or accidentally introduced into regions where they did not exist
boreal forest
desert
grassland
permanent ice
temperate rainforest
tropical rainforest
tundra
what percent of energy is lost moving up each trophic level? 90% lost as heat to the environment
what does soil so for an ecosystem? provides water storage + nutrients
what happens to prey when predator count goes up? prey count goes down
biodegration breaking down of dead organic matter by living organisms like bacteria
where does nitrogen fixation occur? water, soil, atmosphere
nitrogen fixation nitrogen gas is converted to ammonium
nitrification ammonium is converted into nitrate
denitrification nitrogen is returned into the atmosphere
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