C1 Rock and Building Materials

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C1 Rock and Building Materials Chemistry AQA Science UPTODATE

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Question Answer
What is limestone mainly made up of? Calcium Carbonate CaCO3
How is limestone formed? From the remains of tiny animals and plants that lived in the sea millions of years ago.
How do we obtain limestone? We dig it out of the ground in quarries/ Quarrying.
What is limestone mostly used for? Building materials
How do we make cement? We heat powdered limestone with powdered clay in a kiln.
How do we make mortar? We mix cement and sand with water.
How do we make concrete? We mix aggregate, cement and sand with water.
Define: Aggregate Crushed rocks or small stones
Define: Thermal Decomposition Breaking down a chemical by heating it.
Calcium carbonate is made up of which ions? Ca 2+ and CO3 2- ions
What are the products of thermally decomposing CaCO3? Calcium oxide CaO and Carbon dioxide CO2
What do we use to make calcium oxide? Rotary lime kiln
How do we use a rotary lime kiln to make calcium oxide? We fill it with crushed limestone and heat it with steam. Calcium oxide comes out at the bottom. Waste gases leave at the top.
What is the point of having a rotating drum in a rotary lime kiln? It makes sure the limestone is thoroughly mixed with the steam. It helps the limestone to decompose completely.
What damages buildings and statues made out of limestone? Acid rain
Why does acid rain damage buildings and statues made out of limestone? Calcium carbonate reacts with the acid and gives off a gas.
What is the test for carbon dioxide? Limewater (calcium hydroxide) turns cloudy because tiny solid particles of insoluble calcium carbonate are formed as a precipitate.
What happens in the test for carbon dioxide? Give an equation. Calcium Hydroxide + Carbon Dioxide -> Calcium Carbonate + Water. Ca(OH)2 + CO2 -> CaCO3+ H2O
Finish the word equation: Metal carbonate + acid -> Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide.
Which other metals react in the same way as Calcium? Group 2 metals
Which metal carbonates cannot be decomposed using a Bunsen burner? Why? Sodium carbonate Potassium carbonate They need higher temperatures. They are more reactive than the other carbonates.
Go through the steps of the Limestone Cycle.
What do we use Calcium Hydroxide for? Farmers use it to neutralise acidic soils. It is used to neutralise acidic waste gases in industry before releasing them into the atmosphere.
How does Calcium Hydroxide neutralise acidic soils? Neutralisation reaction. It is an alkali. Raises pH of the soil. Produces a calcium salt and water.
What does mortar do? Holds building materials together.
How does mortar work? The calcium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide in the air and forms calcium carbonate. Calcium Hydroxide + Carbon Dioxide -> Calcium Carbonate + Water Ca(OH)2 + CO2 -> CaCO3 + H2O
What is the difference between lime mortar and modern mortar? Lime mortar is made by mixing CALCIUM HYDROXIDE and water and sand. Modern mortar is made up of CEMENT, water and sand.
What is Portland cement? Cement that is used in the modern day. It is made from a mixture of limestone, clay and other minerals. They are heated and then ground up into a fine powder.
What is reinforced concrete? Concrete is poured around steel rods/ bars/ mesh/ glass. It is good at resisting forces that pull it apart.
What are the advantages of quarrying limestone? 1. Provides local jobs / helps local economy. 2. It is a valuable natural resource. 3. It is in high demand. 4. Helps raise awareness about poor infrastructure. 5. Huge craters left behind can be made into reservoirs/ landfill sites/ replanted.
What are the disadvantages of quarrying limestone? 1. Noise pollution 2. Dust pollution 3. Exploiting natural resource 4. Blasting scares wildlife 5. Scars environment 6. Loss of habitat
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