HSC 696 - Exam #1


Research methods, chapters of a thesis, sampling, scales
Flashcards by sarah_walatka, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by sarah_walatka over 7 years ago

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Question Answer
steps in a research plan 1. select and define the problem 2. execute research procedures (collect data) 3. analyze data 4. draw and state conclusions
the scientific method 1. identification and definition the problem 2. formation of hypotheses 3. collecting data 4. organizing and analyzing data 5. rejecting/accepting the hypotheses 6. conclusion
chapters in a thesis 1. intro and statement of the problem (+ assumptions and limitations) 2. review of lit 3. methodology 4. results 5. summary, conclusions, recommendations
ch. 1 of a thesis intro, statement of problem, purpose statement, objectives, research questions, hypotheses, definitions of terms, limitations, assumptions
ch. 2 of thesis review of lit, summary, headings that relate to purpose statement
ch. 3 of thesis methodology, instrumentation, sample selection, procedure, explanation of coding, statistical tests
ch. 4 of thesis results, tables
ch. 5 of thesis summary, conclusion, discussion, recommendations
what is a hypothesis? a tentative explanation for certain behavior, phenomena, or events that have occurred or will occur
characteristics of a good hypothesis based on sound rational clear specific testable brief
types of hypotheses null, directional, and non-directional null: predicts no difference directional: predicts a direction non-directional: predicts no direction, assumes a difference
formula to write a null hypothesis There is no significant difference in DV by IV
formula of a non-directional hypothesis There is a significant difference in DV by IV
formula of a directional hypothesis IV (a) is higher/lower on DV than IV (b)
how is research used? to investigate on a continuum of basic to applied --> R&D, theory development, action research (for a localized setting), evaluation research
qualitative vs. quantitative reseach qualitative: induction (specific to general); generates Ho's; process-oriented; biases quantitative: deduction (general to specific); tests Ho's; outcome-oriented; objective
historical research qualitative studying, understanding, and explaining past events not common from primary (people) or secondary (media) source data
pure qualitative research investigates how people feel, believe, and what are the meanings they attach to things contextual study uses many methods lots of data
descriptive research simplest form of quantitative data reporting on how things are, attitudes, opinions (snapshot in time) observational through surveys, polling
correlational research determines relationships between 2 or more variables does not prove causation
experimental research looks at cause/effect relationships, group comparisons highest level DV = IV + IV manipulation of IV and randomization of subjects to ascertain true cause
IV cause or treatment
DV effect or outcome
causal comparative research quantitative method IV is not manipulated
meta analysis contrast and combine results of different studies
quasi-experimental experimental with out random assignment or IV is not really manipulated
is there a cause and effect: experimental, descriptive, causal-comparative, correlational experimental causal comparative
IV manipulated: experimental, descriptive, causal-comparative, correlational experimental
relationship prediction: experimental, descriptive, causal-comparative, correlational correlational
why legislation around research? to protect subjects; make sure they give consent and are aware of risks (d/t WWII Nazi experiments, Tuskegee Syphilis study, Milgram Obedience study)
FERPA Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (1974) provides confidentiality of student records
National research act 1974 human subjects review committee subjects must be informed and give consent study must be approved
HIPAA Health Information Portability and Accountability Act protection of medical information
a researchable problem should... be measurable be theoretical/practical in significance lead to the development of good research questions or hypotheses
statement of the problem the "so what" leads into the purpose of the thesis
purpose statement 1-2 sentence statement that is the basis of your study includes: variables of interest, subjects to study, hypotheses (quantitative) /research questions (qualitative) /objectives (DP)
why is a lit review important? can help you discover what has been done, results of previous attempts, what to expect, good measures/methodology, mistakes to be avoided
what is a population the group of interest in your study to whom your results relate your target or group of interest
how do you select your sample? ID your population determine the necessary sample size choose sample method --> a good sample should be representative of your population and reasonable with respect to resources
random sampling all people in the population have the same chance of entering your sample does not guarantee representation
stratified sampling identification of subgroups as they exist in the population; sample mimics the strata of the pop. (ex: political groups in CA)
cluster sampling groups within a population are randomly selected convenient, efficient may randomly pick an unrepresentative sample
systematic sampling take every Xth person from a group can be considered random is the list is randomly ordered
accidental/haphazard sampling aka convenience sampling use volunteers and whoever is available may affect data; list as a limitation
quota sampling just finding people to fill quote ex: 100 blacks, 100 whites, 100 hispanics used in large group surveys when you do not care about representing the pop often used in qualitative methods
purposive sampling aka judgement sampling using clear criteria to find out about a specific pop. ex: veteran men in final stage of AIDS not generalizable
benefits of a large sample size more generalizable easier to do statistical crunching
sampling error vs. bias sampling error: beyond the control of the researcher sampling bias: error from the researcher
which sampling techniques do not allow for equal chance to enter sample? non-probability sampling convenience sampling quota sampling purposive sampling
generalizability is important in what kind of research? very important in quantitative research, not as important in qualitative research
what are scales? groups of questions or surveys with subscales
nominal scales categorical lowest level (no ability to number crunch) classify into true categories or false categories
ordinal scales ranking ex: test scores, ht, GPA (-): diff b/w #s may not be consistent (ex: diamond carats)
interval scales combination of ordinal and nominal no true zero; max and min scores are arbitrary, used to measure performance not often used
ratio scales has a true zero ex: ht, wt, time, distance, speed highest level; most precise generalizations possible
likert scales strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree most common scale
semantic differential give a quantitative rating ex: on a scale of 1-10...
Thurstone scales forced choice select from an option of statements
Guttman scales agree or disagree with each statement answers become dichotomous (add together for a final score)
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